Agression Essay Plans for A2 Psychology AQA A

These are some essay plans i put together to help myself revise from. There not perfect but some people have said that they are really helpful. Hope they come into use for any of you!

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  • Created by: Nida Dyer
  • Created on: 29-12-11 14:00
Preview of Agression Essay Plans for A2 Psychology AQA A

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Nida Dyer 1
Aggression Essay Plans
Aggression is behaviour directed towards another intended to harm or
Assumes aggression is caused due to internal factors.
Factors include genetic influences, biochemical influence and brain
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Biochemistry studied in 2008 by Nelson and noted selective breeding
experiments can lead to more aggression.
Cairns 1983 showed this in this study of mice. He created highly
aggressive males and female mice that showed aggressive behaviour in
middle age rather than old or young.
Selective breeding suggests that aggression will be inherited.
Shows how important genetic process in understanding human
Difficult to generalise as it is animal research ­ different physiology
Deterministic ­ says that selective breeding will lead to aggression
Ethical issues ­ research conducted on animals.
Doesn't take into account Evolutionary approach ­ suggests that
aggression is caused in terms of individuals survival and reproduction.
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Research not carried out on animals was Sandberg 1961 who identified
XYY karyotype.
Most people have XY but it is possible for some men to have XYY.
Research of Court-Brown found sample of 314 patients with XYY and
found they have an increased likelihood of aggressive behaviour and
therefore requested tem to be hospitalised immediately.
Research was considered correct without critical examination.
Sample bias ­ only researched on XYY type chromosome
Doesn't show cause and effect
Does not take into account social learning ­ aggressive behaviour is
learnt and repeated
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Theilgaard 1984 is likely to correct when she says the issue is more
complex as a whole ­ many other influences such as neural and
hormonal mechanisms.
He researched the personality traits of XYY men compared it to XY and
XXY men. Part of the research compared the aggressiveness of the men.
Theilgaard's research shows that 1 in 10,000 men have XYY and that no
single characteristic except height has been associated with the XYY

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Aggression Essay Plans
condition.. Since research in this area is conflicting, not possible to
conclude that XYY chromosome causes aggressive behaviour.
Social desirability ­ men could have claimed they are more aggressive
than they really are.
Doesn't take into account other biological factors such as testosterone,
which has proven to play a part.
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Another factor that plays a role in brain structure. Amygdala is
responsible for processing emotions.…read more

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Nida Dyer 3
Aggression Essay Plans
Aggression is behaviour intended to harm or injure directed towards
another human being ­ could include physical and psychological harm.
Institutional aggression occurs when aggressive behaviour becomes the
norm of an institution.
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Importation model developed by Irwin and Cressey 1962 claims that
prisoners bring their own personal traits and history which influences
they way individuals behave and adapt to the environment.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
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Deprivation model developed by Peterson and Peterline 1999.
Argues that aggressive behaviour is the product of stressful and
oppressive environment.
Supported by research done by Hodgkinson et al 1985 ­ found trainee
nurses more likely to suffer violent assault that experienced nurses as
trainee nurses still training and more likely to face the violence of
Doesn't take into account biological ­ aggression can be inherited.
Sample bias ­ only done in a hospital with nurses.…read more

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Nida Dyer 5
Aggression Essay Plans
Aggression is behaviour directed towards another intended to harm or
About relationship between group membership and displays of
Explains why people behave differently in a group ­ links to
evolutionary which explains aggression in terms of reproduction and
survival in which instrumental aggression may be necessary.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
Religious Rituals are another places where aggressive behaviour is in a
group is displayed.
One type of Muslims celebrates Ashura where they harm themselves.
Sosis 2009 believes religious rituals are a crucial feature to the success
of a religion. By harming themselves, individuals show commitment to a
Supports Zimbardo's theory of de-individuation as it suggests that
individuals lose their identity and do the same as the crowd.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
Aggression is behaviour directed towards another intended to harm or
Assumes that aggression is located within the biological make up of the
Includes neural transmitters and hormonal mechanisms.
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Two types of neurotransmitters ­ serotonin and dopamine.
Serotonin though tot reduce aggression ­ low levels linked with
Delville 1997 found drugs increasing serotonin production lead to
reduced levels of aggressions suggesting that low serotonin = low
aggression.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
Male sex hormone testosterone though to have influence on aggression
To test this Klinesmith et al 2006 had male college students provide
saliva to measure levels of testosterone after split into 2 groups; one
with gun and other with child's toy.
Gun group was more aggressive and had more testosterone.
Deterministic ­ says that more testosterone will lead to aggression.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
Aggression is behaviour directed towards another intended to harm or
Defined as learning behaviour controlled by the environment rather
than innate or internal forces.
Includes operant conditioning - reward and vicarious re-enforcement ­
For aggression to be learnt ARRM ­ Attention, Retention, reproduction
and Motivation.
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To test if children learn through imitation, Bandura 1961 conducted
Nursery split into 3 groups. Group 1: children watched adult verbally
and physically abuse bobodoll.…read more

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Aggression Essay Plans
After playing both groups given the chance to punish each other. The
group who played violent video games was more likely to punish.
Individual differences ­ different personality, maybe people generally
were more aggressive.
Socially sensitive research ­ participants can learn violence
Low ecological validity ­ doesn't relate to real life.
Doesn't take into account biological
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Bandura and Walter in 1963 had high ecological validity.…read more


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