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What are Tribunals?
· Deal with disputes between the citizen and the
state e.g. social security, tax etc.
· Hear over 1 million cases per year ­ 6x as many as
the civil courts.
· Decisions are binding ­ must be followed.
· Tribunals are made up of a legally qualified
chairperson, judge and 2 lay experts. Lay experts
may broadly sympathise to each side but they are
neutral e.g. an employment tribunal may have an
ex union member and an ex boss.…read more

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Deal with areas they specialise in e.g.
Employment tribunals deal with disputes
employees and employers such as an unfair
dismissal. 75% of cases heard within 26
weeks, only 4% are appealed: ADVANTAGE.
· Heard by that tribunal, not in court.
· Have their own jurisdiction.…read more

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· First tier tribunal and Upper tribunal. The
upper tribunal is primarily for appeals from
the first tier.
· First tier has 4 chambers at present:
· Social Entitlement Chamber
· Health, Education and Social Care Chamber
· War Pensions and Armed Forces
Compensation Chamber
· Tax Chamber…read more

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Upper tribunal currently has 3 chambers:
· Administrative Chamber
· Finance and Tax
· Lands
· Each chamber is headed by a president and
the tribunals judiciary is headed by a Senior
President of Tribunals.…read more

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Advantages of Tribunals
· Flexibility: don't look at past decisions, no
strict rules of precedent, only look at that case
­ with fresh eyes.
· Informality: strict rules of precedent not
applied, no wigs.
· Privacy: private, media does not find out, your
circumstances are not known by the public.
· Specialisation: depth of knowledge in are
concerned.…read more

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