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1: Deviations from social norms
Anti-social/undesirable behaviour defined by a group in place for a good reason. They're
both etiquette and moral standards which if aren't met, are viewed as socially deviant.
Susceptible to abuse ­
Deviance is related to Cultural relativism ­ Social
Varies as time changes and
context & degree ­ Not a norms are defined by culture
allows individuals who
clear line between abnormal so will definitions and
transgress against social
deviations and harmless diagnosis's differ between
attitudes to be classed as
eccentricity. them.
mental.…read more

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2: Failure to function adequately
Not being able to cope with societies demands and the demands of everyday life.
Who judges? ­ Someone Cultural relativism ­
Adaptive/maladaptive? ­
needs to decide if individual Definitions of functioning
Some of the behaviours
is abnormal, and the adequately differ between
aren't abnormal, just
individual is not fit to do so cultures and so will result in
adaptive such as an eating
as they may be unaware or different diagnosis's in
disorder to gain attention.
in denial of their situation. different cultures.…read more

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3: Deviation from ideal mental health
Marie Johoda defines it by looking at the absence of characteristics of good physical health: self
attitudes (high self esteem), personal growth (develops full capacities), integration (cope with
stressful situations), autonomy (independent), accurate perception of reality and mastery of
environment.
Are mental and physical
Cultural relativism ­ Most
health the same? ­ Doctors
of the criteria are culture
Who can achieve all that? ­ use health sign to diagnose
bound and most of non-
most of us would be defined illness, however there
western cultures would be
as abnormal. usually aren't any with
classed abnormal using this
mental illnesses so can they
key.
be diagnosed in same way?…read more

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Biological approach to psychopathology
View abnormalities to be caused by underlying genetic factors or bodily malfunction. Cure is
only possible through removing problem & returning body to normal state. 4 possible factors:
1)Genes ­ abnormalities can be passed from parent to child due to genetic inheritance. One
way of studying this is studying twins to analyse concordance rates (likelihood of two
genetically identical people having the same mental disorder) which have been low for some
diseases including phobias but high for diseases including schizophrenia.
2)Biochemistry & neuroanatomy ­ Genes tell the body how to function and determine
biochemistry (hormones and neurotransmitters in brain) as well as neuroanatomy (structure of
brain). Research has shown schizophrenics to have enlarged spaces in their brains.
3)Viral infection ­ Some diseases have been linked to exposure to viruses in the womb.
Humane or inhumane? ­ The emergence of this model led to
more human treatments for mental patients. However it has been
criticised as inhumane as some people believe mental illness
doesn't have a physical basis and was created as a form of `social
Limitations control'.
Cause & effect ­ No support of link between schizophrenia and
altered brain chemistry.
Inconclusive evidence ­ No evidence mental illness is purely
caused by inheritance, concordance rates are never 100%.…read more

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Psychodynamic approach to psychopathology
Abnormalities occur due to underlying psychological conflicts of which the individual
is largely unaware. 3 possible factors:
1)Unresolved conflicts cause mental disorder ­ Conflicts between the ID, ego, and
super ego create anxiety. The ego defends itself which can caused disrupted behaviour
if they're overused.
2)Early experiences cause mental disorder ­ If the childhood ego is not developed
enough it can become repressed.
3)Unconscious motivations cause mental disorder ­ Ego defences such as repression
and regression can exert pressure leading to distress.
Abstract concepts ­ Such as ID, ego and superego
are hard to define so therefore hard to investigate so
have received limited empirical support.
Limitations Sexism ­ Less well developed for women perhaps
due to the cultural bias of Victorian society.
Lack of research evidence ­ Difficult to prove or
disprove.…read more

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Comments

Aisha

really good

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