A2 research methods- validity and facing problems that may arise

contains definitions etc

internal and external validity etc

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Validity
Validity concerns legitimacy. It's the extent to which the result corresponds
accurately to the real world.
INTERNAL VALIDITY
Whether the researcher is testing what they intended to test.
Experimental research: may be affected by extraneous variables that
may act as another IV. Conclusions about the effect of the IV on the DV
are false if changes to the DV are due to confounding variables. Internal
validity can also be affected by the measurements used as these can
also lack validity.
Observational techniques: a flawed coding system decrease validity.
Observer bias can also affect internal validity.
Questionnaires and Interviews: content validity- is the method testing
what its supposed to test? Concurrent validity- comparing these results
to another already established and trusted method can improve validity.
Construct validity- does the measure test the target variable?
EXTERNAL VALIDITY
The extent to which the results of the study can be generalised to the
wider population. This is also called ecological validity.
Experimental research: Sometimes the artificiality of the lab
experiement doesn't affect the behaviour so it can be generalised to
wider society. But sometimes artificiality can affect behaviour so it's
difficult to determine what is affected or vice versa. Being aware of who
is studying you and the task itself can also affect validity and reduce
mundane realism and therefore the generalisability of the results.
Observational Techniques: Likely to have high ecological validity because
they involve more natural behaviours- though this isn't always true.
Questionnaires and Interviews: The external validity of self reports is
likely to be affected by sampling strategies used which may create a
biased sample.

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