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Aims and Hypotheses

Aim What the experiment or study is trying to find out.

Hypothesis A precise and testable statement about the assumed
relationship between variables.
Null Hypothesis An assumption that there is no relationship in the sample
population with respect to the variables being tested.
Alternative/ A testable statement…

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Questionnaires Psychologists use questionnaires and interviews to find out what
& people think and feel. Interviews are similar they are like a face to face
Interviews questionnaire but could be fairly unstructured to collect data.

Advantages to Questionnaires Disadvantages to Questionnaires
-Questionnaires can be easily replicated -Social desirability bias might…

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Case Studies Is a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event. It uses
information from a range of sources. Many techniques like interviews,
tests etc are used to collect rich data. Usually a longitudinal study.
Advantages Disadvantages
-The complex interaction of many factors -Difficult to generalise from individual…

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Mean: Adding up the values or scores and dividing them by the number of
Uses all data
Be unrepresentative of data as whole if there is extreme values
No appropriate for nominal data

Median: The middle value in an ordered list
Unaffected by extreme scores
Not all values are…

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Not a useful way of describing data when there are several modes

Statistical Tests

Chi-Squared Test -Is a statistical test to see whether the results are significant when is
measured at.. the nominal level and come from more than one group of participants

Sign Test-Is a statistical test to see…

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Levels of Measurement


Nominal: A level of measurement where data is in separate categories

Ordinal:A level of measurement where data is ordered in some way. Intervals
between scores may vary (rank)

Interval:A level of measurement where units of equal intervals are used.
Such as when counting correct answers (degrees)…

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Extraneous variables are any other variables that may have an effect on the DV
Co-variables It involves measuring the strength of the relationship between two or
more variables ( co-variables) to see if a trend or pattern exists between them
Investigator effects occur when some aspect of the investigator (e.g.…

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External validity How far the results of an experiment can be applied to
other people and situations
Ecological validity How far the results of an experiment can be
generalised beyond the setting
Face validity How far a test superficially appears to measure what
it's supposed to
Content validity The extent…

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names from the target can be generalised to a -May be unrepresentative as
population into a hat and wider population. there may be more males
draw out the required than females.
sample number.
Opportunity sampling- Easiest sample available Biased because the sample is
involves selecting and takes less time drawn…


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