Most of the specification has been included besides validity and reliability as I cant find my document i created for it last year. Hope this helps :) 

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Aims and Hypotheses
Aim What the experiment or study is trying to find out.
Hypothesis A precise and testable statement about the assumed
relationship between variables.
Null Hypothesis An assumption that there is no relationship in the sample
population with respect to the variables being tested.
Alternative/ A testable statement about the relationship between two
Experimental variables/
Directional Hypothesis States which of the conditions or groups of participants will be
higher scoring (one tailed test)
Non-directional Predicts that there will be a difference between two
Hypothesis conditions/groups but without stating which will produce higher
scores (two tailed tests)
Research Methods
Experiments -All experiments involve an IV and a DV. This research method
investigates causal relationships by observing the effect the IV has on
the DV. They control extraneous variables.
Lab experiments An experiment conducted in a controlled environment. Usually
demonstrates high internal validity.
Advantages Disadvantages
-High internal validity because EVs can be -Experimenter/researcher bias
controlled. -Low external (ecological) validity
-Control also increases replicability making -Demand characteristics
the results more reliable
Field An experiment conduced outside the laboratory. The IV is still
experiments manipulated by the experimenter
Advantages Disadvantages
-Increases ecological validity -Demand Characteristics may still be a
-Still remains some control over EV's such as problem(hypothesis may become clear)
experimenter effects -EV's harder to control
Natural A research method in which the experimenter cannot manipulate the IV
experiment directly but it varies naturally and the effects on a DV can be observed.
Advantages Disadvantages
-Allows research to be done where it be -No cause and effect relationship can be
unethical or impractical to manipulate the IV established (causal conclusions cannot be
-Can be the only way to study certain drawn)
behaviours or effects -EV's could affect validity
-PP's aren't randomly allocated to the
conditions reducing generalisablity and

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Questionnaires Psychologists use questionnaires and interviews to find out what
& people think and feel. Interviews are similar they are like a face to face
Interviews questionnaire but could be fairly unstructured to collect data.
Advantages to Questionnaires Disadvantages to Questionnaires
-Questionnaires can be easily replicated -Social desirability bias might cause
-Can involve large groups of people respondents to answer questions to make
-People may be less self-conscious as they them look better.
may be more willing to reveal personal info -Answers may be limited.…read more

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Case Studies Is a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event. It uses
information from a range of sources. Many techniques like interviews,
tests etc are used to collect rich data. Usually a longitudinal study.
Advantages Disadvantages
-The complex interaction of many factors -Difficult to generalise from individual cases
can be studied. as each one is unique.
-Rich, in-depth data: qualitative -Often requires a lot of past recollections
-Unusual behaviours can be studied which can be unreliable.…read more

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Mean: Adding up the values or scores and dividing them by the number of
Uses all data
Be unrepresentative of data as whole if there is extreme values
No appropriate for nominal data
Median: The middle value in an ordered list
Unaffected by extreme scores
Not all values are reflected so isn't as sensitive
Not appropriate for nominal data
Mode: Value that is most common in a data set
Only method appropriate when data is in categories e.g.…read more

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Not a useful way of describing data when there are several modes
Statistical Tests
Chi-Squared Test -Is a statistical test to see whether the results are significant when is
measured at.. the nominal level and come from more than one group of participants
Sign Test-Is a statistical test to see whether the results are significant when is
measured at ..…read more

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Levels of Measurement
Nominal: A level of measurement where data is in separate categories
Ordinal:A level of measurement where data is ordered in some way. Intervals
between scores may vary (rank)
Interval:A level of measurement where units of equal intervals are used.
Such as when counting correct answers (degrees)
Ratios: A level of measurement where there is a true zero point and equal
intervals between units.…read more

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Extraneous variables are any other variables that may have an effect on the DV
Co-variables It involves measuring the strength of the relationship between two or
more variables ( co-variables) to see if a trend or pattern exists between them
Investigator effects occur when some aspect of the investigator (e.g. appearance,
gender, ethnicity, attitude) influences the participants' answers and responses.…read more

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External validity How far the results of an experiment can be applied to
other people and situations
Ecological validity How far the results of an experiment can be
generalised beyond the setting
Face validity How far a test superficially appears to measure what
it's supposed to
Content validity The extent to which a test properly represents its area
of interest
Construct validity How far a test actually measures some underlying
psychological construct.…read more

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May be unrepresentative as
population into a hat and wider population. there may be more males
draw out the required than females.
sample number.
Opportunity sampling- Easiest sample available Biased because the sample is
involves selecting and takes less time drawn from a small part of
participants who are readily target population
available and willing to take
part Cant generalise to other
Volunteer sampling-involves Opportunity and Produces sample that are
people volunteering to volunteer sampling are biased in some way.…read more


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