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Desensitisation ­ get used to the behaviour and are less anxious about violent behaviour so
more likely to engage in it.
o Bushman (2009) ­ Ps who played violent game for 20 minutes took longer to
respond to someone injured in a staged fights than those in non-violent…

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Greitemeyer & Osswald 2010 ­ playing pro-social game = helped researcher pick up pencils

Shotton 1989 ­ Kids addicted to games for 5 years ­ did well in school & got high-ranking jobs
Lenhart 2008 ­ kids took part in discussion boards for games = more committed politically…

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*Persuasive effects of media:

Hovland-Yale Model ­ Carl Hovland 1950s


Experts ­ more credible (Bochner & Insko 1966)
Celeb endorsement
Men more persuasive


1 sided ­ bias (less intelligent or favour product) && 2 sided ­ not bias - truth (intelligent)
Repeated exposure ­ more persuasive (familiarity…

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*Persuasiveness of TV advertising:

Hard & Soft Sell - supports elaboration likelihood model

Hard = central route (FACTS)
Soft = Peripheral (APPEALING)

Product endorsement ­ using celebs ­ supports Hovland-Yale model

Giles 2002 ­ parasocial relationship
o Associate positive feelings we get from celeb to the product (Walker 1992)


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*Research into intense fandom ­ including celeb worship & celeb stalking

Celeb Worship:

Cheung & Yue 2003
o Phone survey, 833 chinese teenagers
FOUND- idol worship is associated with lower levels of work/study & lower
levels of self-esteem & less successful identity achievement
Maltby 2001
o Celeb worshippers have lower…


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