A2: PSYA4: Media Psychology

Slight structure for exams, so you know something for everything! 

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  • Created on: 15-06-13 19:17
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*Explanations:
Anti-Social:
Desensitisation ­ get used to the behaviour and are less anxious about violent behaviour so
more likely to engage in it.
o Bushman (2009) ­ Ps who played violent game for 20 minutes took longer to
respond to someone injured in a staged fights than those in non-violent condition
(suggesting desensitisation took place)
o Aretakis & Rameris (2001) believe that over-exposure to media violence retards
development of emotion regulation skills, leading to desensitisation to cues that
normally trigger empathetic responding, then leading to aggressive behaviour
Cognitive Priming ­ Anti-social behaviours shown may spark anti-social thoughts in memory
pathways.
o Huesmann (1982) added that kids may learn problem solving scripts through
observation. If they find themselves in a similar situation in reality, they may recall
parts of the script as a solution (aka creating schema)
Cultivation effect ­ Gerbner & Gross (1976) TV creates distrust or fear in viewers. The
viewer's exaggerate or misperceive threats in real life = violent behaviour
Pro-social:
Social Learning Theory ­ Bandura (1961) ­ non-violent condition imitated adults behave
o Rosenkoetter (1999) Found positive correlation between amount of sitcoms children
watched and pro-social behaviour [reported by parents]
Cognitive Priming ­ Good News Study ­ Holloway 1977
o EXP Support ­ Hearold 1986 ­ fewer studies on pro-social but more effective
Cumberbatch 1998 ­ counted more altruistic acts than anti-social on US TV.
Video Games:
Negative:
Addiction, desensitisation, may disrupt moral evaluation
Silvern & Williamson 1987 ­ playing violent games ­ more verbal & physical aggression
Sopes & Millar 1983 ­ kids playing violent games = addictive tendencies ­ turn to crime to
fund habit of violence

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Positive:
Greitemeyer & Osswald 2010 ­ playing pro-social game = helped researcher pick up pencils
(Lemmings/Tetris/Lamers)
Shotton 1989 ­ Kids addicted to games for 5 years ­ did well in school & got high-ranking jobs
Lenhart 2008 ­ kids took part in discussion boards for games = more committed politically &
civically
Computer Games
Negative:
Daft 1987 ­ using computer-meditated communications (CMS) negatively affects feedback
levels (communication cues, language variety, personal focus)
Capsi & Gorksy 2006 ­ Israeli Ps ­ `deception is common' ­ 1/3…read more

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Persuasive effects of media:
Hovland-Yale Model ­ Carl Hovland 1950s
Source:
Experts ­ more credible (Bochner & Insko 1966)
Celeb endorsement
Attractive
Men more persuasive
Message:
1 sided ­ bias (less intelligent or favour product) && 2 sided ­ not bias - truth (intelligent)
Repeated exposure ­ more persuasive (familiarity breeds fondness BUT can be annoying)
High fear message ­ far less effective than mod fear (turn it over ­ don't take it in)
Audience:
Original assumption (high self ­ less easily persuaded
Mcguire contradicted…read more

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Persuasiveness of TV advertising:
Hard & Soft Sell - supports elaboration likelihood model
Hard = central route (FACTS)
Soft = Peripheral (APPEALING)
Product endorsement ­ using celebs ­ supports Hovland-Yale model
Giles 2002 ­ parasocial relationship
o Associate positive feelings we get from celeb to the product (Walker 1992)
Pester Power ­ appealing to children
Pine & Nash 2001 ­ tv exposure & gift request to santa
Gratification theory ­ Fiske 1987- viewers & TV interact
Escape Honda ­ selling a dream
Social interaction BT…read more

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Research into intense fandom ­ including celeb worship & celeb stalking
Celeb Worship:
Cheung & Yue 2003
o Phone survey, 833 chinese teenagers
FOUND- idol worship is associated with lower levels of work/study & lower
levels of self-esteem & less successful identity achievement
Maltby 2001
o Celeb worshippers have lower levels of psychological well-being than
non-worshippers ­ ON CAS:
Entertainment social = social dysfunction
Intense Personal = Depression & anxiety
Celeb Stalking
Kienan 1998 ­ insecure attachment > stalking behaviour
o Anxious Attachment ­ seek…read more

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