Psya3 Gender DOC

4 pages of all the notes that I've made for the PSYA3 Exam for the 19th Jan 2012 :) Hope it helps! 

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Eliz Leyla Mani
PSYA3: Gender
Sex: biological male or female.
Gender: psychological how you feel, behave and think! (affect, behave, cognition).
Biology: MALES have LARGER sexually dimorphic nucleus in the hypothalamus than
Imperato - McGinley
Dominican Republic Study
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) XY but brought up as a girl (okay until puberty)
Andro genital syndrome (AGS) XX but brought up as a boy (okay but infertile)
*Nature overrides nurture at puberty in AIS*
Evolutionary Explanations of Gender (Sociobiological explanations)
EEA: genes naturally selected
males stronger
women empathetic = NATURE
Ancestors cognitive: strong gender roles encourages by society - for survival,
reproduction and the good of the group. - Behavioural = NURTURE
relates to the Hunter/Gather lifestyle
Behavioural: Social Learning of gender
Children conditioned by their parents rewarded when gender appropriate behaviour
Bemm: work is important as she was measuring gender but ended up measuring
stereotypes. She noticed that gender and sex don't match gender is a social
construction whereas sex is biological!
Evidence - Smith and Lloyd: dress up a new born as a girl and present it to strangers less
violent, more talkative but when dressed up as a boy strangers are more playful and less
PARENTS and reinforcement
Evidence - sensitivity to sound when in the womb.
Baby in stomach: Girl kicks hears harsh tones
Boy kicks hears better tone of voice
Gender appropriate behaviour is done when boy kicks - boys are encouraged to be active
Lytton&Romney - meta analysis
N. American: encouragement of sex-type behaviours in house/play.
Boys punishment is more physical than girls.
Fathers more concerned with feminine son than a masculine daughter son is a
reflection of man.
FAGOT study: observation method to investigate the affect of parental role models on
gender children had a clearer gender schema with a traditional family.

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Eliz Leyla Mani
· Difficult to validate only observed for a few hours
· More traditional parents would encourage and praise their children to take part in gender
oriented roles operant conditioning not social learning.
· Could be biological children share genes with parents. Could have high levels of
hormones within a family which could affect gender.
SCHOOL and reinforcement
Teachers as rold models: Secondary school physics = male subject/art = female
subject.…read more

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Eliz Leyla Mani
BUT NATURE: gender bias caused by genetics, shared by all humans. EEA therefore
no major gender different due to culture because of nature.
Cognitive approach of gender - most comprehensive in explaining g.d.
Gender identity - 3yrs - able to say whether they are male/female fit's in with SoS
Gender stability - 3-5yrs - if they were a boy, will become a man
Gender constancy - 6yrs - if a man wears a dress, still male ToM&P.…read more

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Eliz Leyla Mani
5. Not valid as people may exaggerate in order to be allowed surgery.
Biological causes in the embryo
XY with too little testosterone = not okay
XX with too little oestrogen = not okay.
1. Psycho-therapy = tends not to work
2. Surgery - most effective
Male to female more common - 3:1 ratio. COS society + gender bias because men are
seen as more important in society.…read more


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