A2 OCR History- Civil Rights in the USA (Native Americans) 1865-1992

This is a comprehensive guide for the OCR History F966/02 specification on the unit 'Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992'. This section is on Native Americans.  

This guide includes:

  • A timeline
  • A detailed overview of the 4 key periods (1865-1900, 1901-1945, 1946-1969, 1970-1992) 
  • A list of exam questions both from past papers and the official OCR book 
HideShow resource information
Preview of A2 OCR History- Civil Rights in the USA (Native Americans) 1865-1992

First 238 words of the document:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
Native Americans timeline from 1862-1992
1862-1900
1862- Homesteads Act
1864- Sand Creek Massacre
1865-69- Union Pacific Railway
1868- Creation of the Great Sioux Reserve
1871- Indian Appropriations Act
1876- Battle of the Little Bighorn
1890- Massacre at the Wounded Knee
1882- Creation of the Indian Rights Association
1887- Dawes Severalty Act (Allotment Policy)
1898- Curtis Act
1901-1945
1902- Lone Wolf v Hitchcock
1905- Muskogee Convention
1911- The Society of American Indians is founded
1924- Indian Citizenship Act
1948- Harrison v Laveen
1922- Bursum Bill
1923- American Indian Defense Association is founded
1923- Dance Order/ Leavitt Bill
1928- Merriam Report
1929- Charles Rhoads is appointed Indian Commissioner by President Hoover
1934- Indian Reorganization Act or the Wheeler Howard Act
1944- National Congress of American Indians is founded
1946-1969
1946- Indian Claims Commission is founded
1948- The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) sets up job placements in Denver and Los Angeles
1953- The termination policy is adopted
1956- Indian Vocational Training Act
1960s- Emergence of `Red Power' and native sovereignty
1960s- President Kennedy vouches to improve resources on reservations
1961- National Indian Youth Council founded
1968- President Johnson's `Forgotten Americans' speech
1

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
1968- Indian Civil Rights Act
1968- Affirmative Action begins
1968- A fish-in is staged in the State of Washington
1969- Nixon appoints Louis R Bruce Jnr as Commissioner for Indian Affairs and pledges to return back lost land to Indians
1969-71- Siege of Alcatraz
1970-1992
1970- President Nixon's speech condemns the treatment of Native Americans by Congress
1970- Creation of the Native American Rights Fund
1971- Occupation of Mount Rushmore
1972- Native Americans are given…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
Many tribes like the Sioux and Cheyenne were hostile to these white encroachers during the Civil
War, especially during the Plains Wars 1862-7. However, as noted by the brutality of the Army in
the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre, traditional NA's were powerless against them.
Since 1851 many NA's relinquished their tribal lands following treaties in exchange for trust. For
example, with the Medicine Lodge Treaty 1867.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
Education was also key in `Americanising' the NA's. Children were taught English, though this was
limited as many teachers were frustrated at conditions and the language barrier. The establishment
of vocational schools in the 1870s did provide trades for boys like masonry and girls cooking and
sewing but few found employment and returned back to reservations. This was purely an attempt to
make NA's lose their tribal essence.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
In 1911, the Society for American Indians was founded which campaigned for better education and
healthcare. Due to insufficient funds and internal division on matters of assimilation vs
self-determination meant that it quickly collapsed in the 1920s.
More then 100k NA's participated in World War One. This elevated urbanisation via the
government's sponsor of NA's to work in the defense industry in cities, especially women.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
However, it was limited as although Congress passed it in 1934 , it was modified so that funding
was limited and short-term, preventing land from being bought back for tribes from white settlers,
limiting self-determination to economic matters which meant that the policy of assimilation
continued. Collier himself lost support because he failed to appreciate that not everyone wanted
self-determination as many urban Indians appealed to assimilation with its benefits.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
Vocational Training Act 1956 which lured young NA's away from reservations by giving them
employment opportunities and financial support.
By 1968 however, it was apparent that the policy did little to benefit NA's. They had the highest
rates of illiteracy and unemployment in the US. President Lyndon Johnson's `Forgotten American'
1968 proposed a National Council on Indian Opportunity to help children get an education funded by
government.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
they stayed, retained their culture and way of life. Coinciding with poverty, illiteracy and
discrimination, many took up a more militant approach in an attempt to reclaim what rightfully
belonged to NA's coming especially from the youth. By 1968, it was evident that a united front
would ensure that the struggle for justice, freedom and independence would be fruitful.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

A2 OCR History Civil Rights in the USA 1865-1992 F966/02
believed that AIM didn't represent the best interests of the NA's, erupting into divisions within the
movement. By the late 1970s, the SC was the last place from which to exert lost rights.
The National American Rights Fund was founded in 1970 to defend NA rights in particular, cultural
rights. NARF concerned itself with restoring tribal sovereignty and recover lost land.…read more

Comments

DanielBrewster

These are great resources, just need the last African American one if you can get that done and uploaded soon that would be great

TiahHug

Amazing this has helped my revision so much thankyou for this 

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »