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Arenes are aromatic hydrocarbons with one or more benzene rings

Aromatic is when a hydrocarbon contains a benzene ring



Kekule's idea

C-C & C=C are different bond lengths

X ray studies show that all six of the carbon to carbon bond lengths in benzene
are the same 0.139nm

Between the…

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Delocalised Model of Benzene




The shape around each carbon atom is trigonal planar
o
giving a bond angle of 120

Every carbon atom has 4 outer electrons, 3 bond with 2 carbon atoms and 1 hydrogen atom,
leaving one outer shell electron in a 2p orbital above and below the…

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Decolourises Bromine in an addition reaction like a typical alkene would
Bromine is non polar but reacts with the C=C as the pi bond has localised electrons above and
below the two carbon atoms in the double bond giving a region of high electron density
This can then polarise Bromine…

Page 4

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Phenol and Bromine react more easily than Benzene and Bromine
Because a lone pair of electrons in the p orbital on the oxygen atom in phenol group is drawn
to the benzene ring
More electron density results in the ring structure and is activated
This increase in electron density polarises…

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