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2.3.3 The Future of infectious Disease Control
Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, distribution and control of diseases in populations.
Incidence-The number of new cases of a specific illness diagnosed or reported during a
stated time period
Incidence rate- The incidence divided by the number of people at risk
Prevalence- The number of current cases of a condition at one time no matter when it
Prevalence rate- The prevalence divided by the total number of people at risk.
(b) Global Impact of HIV and TB
(c) Notifiable Diseases
Doctors in england and wales have a duty to notify the local authority of certain notifiable,
infectious diseases including polio, anthrax, cholera, food poisoning, malaria, measles,
meningitis, mumps, rabies, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis and whooping
(d) Factors in the Prevention of TB and HIV
Ethical factors- TB
1. Tracing contacts
2. Supervising treatment, e.g. is the patient taking the prescribed drugs?
3. Are the living conditions of the person encouraging the spread of the disease?
4. Could the person infected with TB also be infected with HIV without knowing it?
5. Informing authorities of person infected with a notifiable disease
Economic factors- TB
1. Can the person infected with TB continue to work?
2. What percentage of the country`s labour force is infected?
3. Is there money available for the treatment of patients with TB? Who is paying for the
treatment of the disease? This will include types of drugs required and for how long
4. Is money available for a vaccination programme?
5. Will the person require improved living accommodation?
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1. Skin test for TB infection & chest X-ray to confirm
2. Identifying source of infection e.g. through contract tracing, taking personal history
which may include migration / travelling details
3. Explaining to the patient the nature of the disease
4. Treatment of disease including monitoring of symptoms and detection of drug resistant
5. Testing for HIV infection as TB may be the presenting disease in an undiagnosed HIV+