2.4.1 Coronary Heart Disease

OCR specifiaction based notes for AS Human Biology

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2.4.1 Coronary Heart Disease
(a) Types of Disease
Noninfectious- A disease not caused by a pathogen so does not spread between people.
e.g. CHD
Infectious- A disease caused by a pathogen so can spread between people.
e.g. Common cold
(b) Causes of CHD
CHD can be caused by atherosclerosis. This is where the artery wall is damaged and phagocytic cells go
to the damage forming foam cells. Plaque builds up on top and narrows the lumen. The pain caused is
called angina. If an embolism forms and cuts of the blood supply in a coronary artery, a heart attack will
result.
(c) Heart Attack of Cardiac Arrest
Heart Attack- A heart attack is where trh blood supply to the heart muscle is restricted or completely cut
off
Cardiac Arrest- Cardiac arrest is where the heart muscle stops beating
(d) FIrst Aid 1
First aid for a conscious heart attack patient;
Make the patient comfortable
Dial 999
If they have medication give it to them
Monitor their condition e.g. breathing rate
Note their level of consciousness
Be prepared to give CPR
(e) First Aid 2
First aid for a cardiac arrest patient;
Dial 999
If there is a pulse but no breathing carry out rescue breaths

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If there's no pulse or breathing carry out chest compressions; press the center of the chest 5 cm
in about 100 times a minute. If pulse restarts place patient in recovery position
(f) Aspirin and Defibrillation
The defib is turned on and the pads are placed on the patient's chest. The machine determines whether
to deliver the shock. No one should touch the patient.…read more

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BMI and Hip Waist Ratio
There are two ways to assess whether a person is overweight or not; BMI and waist hip ratio.
Body Mass Index is weight divided by height squared. It should be between 20 and 25.
Waist Hip ratio shows how weight is distributed around the body. You divide waist by hip measurement.
It should be less than 0.9.
(j) Treatment for CHD
Angioplasty is where a balloon is inflated by an atheroma, flattening to open the lumen.…read more

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Management of CHD
NICE is the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. They give guidance on public health, health
technologies and clinical practice.
They are an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on promoting good
health and preventing and treating ill health.…read more

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