2.3.1 Controlling the Spread of Infectious Diseases

OCR specifiaction based notes for AS Human Biology

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2.3.1 Controlling the Spread of Infectious Diseases
(a) Infectious Disease
An infectious disease is a disease that can be spread from one organism from another.
They are caused by pathogens .
(b) Epidemic, Endemic and Pandemic
An endemic is an infectious disease that is always present in a population or prevalence
pool. An epidemic is a sudden increase in the incidence in a specified area such as a city or
country. A pandemic is a rise in thee incidence of a disease on a global scale.
(c) Structure of TB
(d) Structure of HIV

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HIV is transmitted through the mixing of bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, breast milk and
semen. This occurs through sharing of used needles, unprotected sex and breast feeding.
(f) Antibiotics
Antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by bacteria. They can cause the inhibition cell
wall synthesis, protein synthesis, dna synthesis, folic acid synthesis and RNA synthesis.
(g) Evolution of Resistant Strains
In some bacteria mutations can occur which make them resistant to the effects of certain
antibiotics.…read more

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DNA will be
produced and the given pattern can be compared to other plant species for a relationship
(k) Seed Banks
Kew Gardens are collecting seeds from many plant species all over the world and storing
them. Seeds stored in suitable conditions can last for decades and sometimes even
hundreds of years. Kew Gardens already have seeds stored from species thought to be
endangered in the wild.…read more


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