2.1 Cell Structure Notes

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Light microscope­ Light microscopes shine light through a specimen and then uses focused lenses
to magnify it.
Laser scanning microscope ­ These use laser light to scan an object, point by point, before using
the information to assemble an image on the computer. They create very high definition, high
contrast images and have depth selectivity (they can focus on structures at different depths in the
specimen). They are used for biological research and in the medical progression e.g. to use on a
patient with a fungal corneal infection as the fungal filaments within the cornea will be visible on
the microscope image. It helps give faster diagnosis so the treatment is given earlier and is
therefore more effective.
1. Nerve Cell
Scanning electron microscope light microscope
2. Lung tissue

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Electron microscope Light microscope
3. Plant vascular bundle
Electron microscope Light microscope
4. E.…read more

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Electron microscope Light microscope Laser scanning microscope
The magnification is how many times bigger an image is compared to the original specimen.
Microscopes produce linear magnification. (it's width and length are magnified by the same
Magnification = Size of Image/Size of Object
Size of Object = Size of image/Magnification
Size of image = Size of Object x Magnification
Resolution is the microscopes ability to show fine detail and produce clear, sharp images.…read more

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Optical Microscopes Electron Microscopes
Relatively cheap Expensive
Easy to use Large
Portable for fieldwork Need a great deal of skill and training to use
Able to be used to study whole living Specimens have to be dead
Eukaryotic Cells
1) Robert Hooke 1665 discovered cells
2) Cilia/flagellum ­ long whip like tail made of microtubules
3) Cell membrane ­ encloses the cell contents, selective permeability, flexible
4) Cytoplasm ­ water and nutrients, contains the cytoskeleton and centrosomes which
assemble microtubules
5) Endoplasmic reticulum ­…read more

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Eukaryotic Plant Cells
These are 4 ­ 10um long
organelles with a double
membrane like mitochondria.
They are the site of
photosynthesis. Stage 1: light
energy is trapped to make ATP &
water is split for hydrogen ions
(occurs in grana). Stage 2:
hydrogen reduces CO2 & uses
the energy from APT to produce
Cell Wall
In plants this is made of cellulose and is strong to prevent cells from bursting when turgid.…read more

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