SNAB Topic 1 Unit 2 Notes - Genes and Health NOTES

SNAB Topic 1 Unit 2 Notes - Genes and Health NOTES

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
BIOLOGY AS REVISION NOTES
TOPIC 1: UNIT 2
SNAB specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
Copyrighted
References: Various internet sources, sources from GetRevising, SNAB text book
{CIS 1.1} THE LUNGS
17/11/13
1
|
Page
Ai
r
tr
achea
bronchi
t
ubes
bronchi
ole
alveol
i
+ capi
ll
ari
es
wrapped
around
= di
ff
usi
on
of
O 2

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
Goblet
cel
ls
­ pr
odu ces
thi
n l
ayer
of
mu cus
Epi
thel
ial
cel
ls
­ l
ine
the wal
ls
of
the
tubes
Ci
li
a ­
hair
li
ke
e xt
ensions
that
cover
t
he epi
thel
ial
cel
ls beat
away
the
mucus
+ al
l
the
dust
s
and
pathogens i
t
contai
ns coughed
out
/
digest
ed by…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME
e.
g.
D: Tot
al
SA :
(8
x 1)
x
4 s
ides
= 32
(1
x 1)
x
2 s
ides
= 2
32
+ 2
=34
Vol
ume:
(
8
x 1
x1)
=
8
Tot
al
SA /
V:
34
/
8 =
4.…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
2
x 4
x 1
= 8
Tot
al
SA /
V:
28
/
8 =
2.5
Conclusion's drawn from results
Smal
l
organi
sms
have
incr
eased
SA
to
V r
ati
o b/
c t
hey
have
thei
r
SA
is
rel
ati
vel
y si
mil
ar
siz
e
to
t
hei
r
V.…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
CF
people
are
usual
ly
short
of
br
eath
b/c
of
inef
fi
ci
ent
gas
exc
h ange
not
r
ecei
vi
ng
enough
oxygen
t
hus
they
rel
y on
anaer
o bi
c
respi
rat
ion
which
causes
pai
n
How sticky mucus affects gas exchange systems
Thi
ck,
sti
cky
mu cus
blocks
(nar
row)
bronchi
oles vent
il
ati
on
of
alv
e ol…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
Par
all
el
chai
ns
for
m hydr
ogen
bonds
bet
w een
them,
whi
ch
hol
ds
them
toget
her
i
n "
sheet
s".
TERTIARY STRUCTURE
Pol
ypept
ide
chai
ns
fol
d t
o pr
oduce
3D s
truct
ure,
hel
d i
n pl
ace
by:
Hydrophobic/philic interactions = bet
w een
polar
­R gr
oups.…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
SUMMARY OF STAGES
More Proteins:
Prot
eins
that
i
ncorporat
e nonpepti
de mo l
ecul
es
in
thei
r
overal
l
str
uctur
e,
eit
h er
bond ed coval
entl
y or
posi
ti
oned by
other
for
ces.
The non pept
ide
components
are
ref
e r
red
to
as prosthetic groups.…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
Glycopr
otei
n's,
i
ncor
porat
ing
polysacchar
ide
prost
heti
c gr
oups
(e.
g.
col
lagen
and
mucus)
.
Li
poprotei
ns,
i
ncorpor
ati
ng l
i
p i
d pr
osthet
ic
groups
(e.
g.
H DL
and LDL)
.
e.
g.…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
Cell Membrane structure
{CIS 20}
Li
pid
= 3
fatt
y aci
ds +
glycer
o l
Phospholi
pids
= 2
fat
ty aci
ds +
neg at
ive
phosphate
group
2
layer
s of
phospholi
pids
= bil
ayer
= mo st
st
able
arr
angeme nt
More
u nsat
urat
e d
phosph ol
ipi
ds =
mo re
fl
uid
b/c
ther
e ar
e more…read more

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Uni
t
O ne:
Topi
c 2
­ Genes
and
H eal
th [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]
Darker
edges
shoul
d be
phosphat
e heads because
they
are
mo re
elect
ron
dense
Li
ghter
i
nside
shoul
d be
fat
ty
aci
d t
ail
s because
they
are
less
elect
ron
dense
Freeze Fracture
{CIS 24}
Fr
o zen
me mbranes
are
fr
actured
then
opened
up
to
show a
smo ot
h sur
face
but
w i
th
lar
ge pr
otei
ns…read more

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