Unit 1 Biology Notes PDF

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 1
AQA(B) AS Module 1
Contents
Specification 2
Biological Molecules Chemical bonds 4
Carbohydrates 5
Lipids 7
Proteins 9
Biochemical Tests 15
Enzymes 16
Cells Eukaryotic Cells 22
Prokaryotic Cells 27
Cell Fractionation 29
Microscopy 30
The Cell Membrane 34
Movement across Cell Membranes 36
Exchange 42
Physiology and Disease Disease 43
Lifestyle and Disease 45
The Digestive System 47
Cholera 51
The Gas Exchange System 53
Lung Diseases 57
The Circulatory System 61
Heart Disease 65
The Immune System 67
Immunisation 76
Monoclonal Antibodies 77
These notes may be used freely by A level biology students and
teachers, and they may be copied and edited.
Please do not use these materials for commercial purposes.
I would be interested to hear of any comments and corrections.
Neil C Millar ([email protected])
Head of Biology, Heckmondwike Grammar School
High Street, Heckmondwike, WF16 0AH
Sept 2008
HGS A-level notes NCM/9/08

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 2
Module 1 Specification
Biochemistry The structure of prokaryotic cells to include cell wall,
Biological Molecules plasma membrane, capsule, circular DNA, flagella and
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and pro- plasmid.
teins are often polymers and are based on a small
number of chemical elements. Plasma Membranes
· Proteins have a variety of functions within all living The arrangement of phospholipids, proteins and car-
organisms. The general structure of an amino acid.…read more

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 3
tem limited to the salivary glands and the pancreas. and transmission of a subsequent wave of electrical
The structure of an epithelial cell from the small intes- activity. Roles of th e sinoatrial node (SAN), a trioven-
tine as seen with an optical microscope. tricular node (AVN) and bundle of His. Pressure and
volume changes and associated valve movements dur-
Digestion is the proc ess in which large molecules are ing the cardiac cycle.…read more

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 4
Biological Molecules
Life on Earth evolved in the water, and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the mass of
living organisms is water, and almost all the chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous solu-
tion. The other chemicals that make up living things are mostly organic macromolecules belonging
to the four groups carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids.…read more

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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The group includes
monomers, dimers and polymers, as shown in this diagram:
Carbohydrates
Sugars
Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
(monomers) (dimers) (polymers)
e.g. glucose, fructose, e.g. sucrose, e.g. starch,
galactose maltose, lactose cellulose, glycogen
Monosaccharides
These all have the formula (CH2 O)n, where n can be 3-7. The most common and important mono-
saccharide is glucose, which is a six-carbon or hexose sugar, so has the formula C6H12 O6.…read more

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Disaccharides
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond
(C­O­C). The reaction involves the formation of a molecule of water (H2 O):
O O O O
H2O
HO OH HO OH HO O OH
glycosidic bond
This shows two glucose molecules joining together to form the disaccharide maltose. This kind of
reaction, where two molecules combine into one bigger molecule, is called a condensation reac-
tion.…read more

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 7
Lipids
Lipids are a mixed group of hydrophobic compounds composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and sometime phosphorus (CHOP). The most common lipids are triglycerides and phos-
pholipids.
Triglycerides
Triglycerides, or triacylglycerols, are made of glycerol and fatty acids.
H H H
Glycerol is a small, 3-carbon molecule with
H C C C H
three alcohol (OH) groups.…read more

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 8
· If the fatty acid chains in a triglyceride have no C=C double bonds, then
H H H H
they are called saturated fatty acids (i.e. saturated with hydrogen).
C C C C
Triglycerides with saturated fatty acids have a high melting point and
H H H H
tend to be found in warm-blooded animals. At room temperature they
saturated
are solids (fats), e.g. butter, lard.…read more

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Proteins
Proteins are the most complex and most diverse group of biological compounds. They have an
astonishing range of different functions, as this list shows.
structure e.g. collagen (bone, cartilage, tendon), keratin (hair), actin (muscle)
enzymes e.g. amylase, pepsin, catalase, etc (>10,000 others)
transport e.g. haemoglobin (oxygen), transferrin (iron)
pumps e.g. Na+K + pump in cell membranes
motors e.g. myosin (muscle), kinesin (cilia)
hormones e.g. insulin, glucagon
receptors e.g. rhodopsin (light receptor in retina)
antibodies e.g.…read more

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Module 1 - Core Principles - page 10
There are 20 different R groups, and so 20 different amino acids. Since each R group is slightly dif-
ferent, each amino acid has different properties, and this in turn means that proteins can have a
wide range of properties. The table on the next page shows the 20 different R groups, grouped by
property, which gives an idea of the range of properties.…read more

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