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1.1.2 Molecules

(a) Amino Acids




(b) Peptide Bond Formation




(c) Proteins
1. Primary structure ­ the sequence that particular amino acids are linked together is called the primary
structure of a protein. The positioning and chemical behaviour of these amino acids ultimately
determines how the polypeptide chain folds up and…

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pleated` sections where again hydrogen bonding stabilises the shape.
3. Tertiary structure ­ the overall 3D shape one polypeptide chain folds into. It is stabilised by several
types of chemical interaction : hydrogen bonding, ionic bonds, hydrophobic / hydrophilic interactions
and disulphide bridges - strong covalent bonds that form between…

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electrolytes includes the measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions in the blood
and urine.


(i) Diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of a substance from a region where it is in higher concentration to a region
where it is lower. This continues until the concentrations are evenly distribution.…

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(m) Water Potential in Cells




(n) Blood Sugar Testing
Suffers from diabetes mellitus must monitor their blood glucose levels carefully. This disease results
from a failure to produce enough insulin, the hormone responsible for removing glucose from the
bloodstream after a carbohydrate meal and lowering its plasma concentration to a…

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(q) The Role Of Glucose
Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. It is a respiratory substrate meaning it can be easily broken
down by cells during cellular respiration.


(r) Glycogen Formation
When many alpha glucose molecules join together in human cells, a polysaccharide called glycogen is
formed. One glucose…

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(v) Fatty Acids




(w) Phospholipids

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