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Beta pleated sheet forms stiffer pleated` sections where again hydrogen
bonding stabilises the shape.
3. Tertiary structure ­ the overall 3D shape one polypeptide chain folds into. It is stabilised
by several types of chemical interaction : hydrogen bonding, ionic bonds, hydrophobic /
hydrophilic interactions and disulphide bridges - strong covalent bonds that form between
two cysteine amino acids R groups
4. Quaternary structure ­ more than one polypeptide chain can interact to form a final
protein complex eg haemoglobin.…read more

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Waste such as urea and carbon dioxide
Heat is transferred around the body
(g) Water as Transport
Solvent- Allows water to act as a transport medium for polar molecules
Lubricant- Water's cohesive and adhesive properties mean that it is viscous
Thermoregulation- High specific heat capacity means bodies of water are
Transparent- Water allows light to penetrate so plants can photosynthesise
(h) Electrolytes
Electrolytes are ions with a charge and are responsible for maintaining water potential.…read more

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This is usually done using an electronic device which
contains a biosensor. A test strip impregnated with the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase is
inserted into the sensor after a drop of blood has been placed in contact with the strip.
The enzyme converts the blood glucose present into gluconolactone. The reaction
produces a small electric current which is converted into a measurement for blood glucose
concentration after 30 seconds (mmol dm-3).…read more

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It is compact, so a lot of glucose can be stored in a small space
It is a branched molecule, so there are lots of `ends' where glucose can be released
quickly.…read more

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Phospholipids…read more


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