Biology 2.1.7 Prokaryotic cells

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  • Created by: AabirA
  • Created on: 03-04-17 12:03

Prokaryotic cells vs Eukaryotic cells

Similarities

  • Both have a plasma membrane
  • Both have a cytoplasm
  • Both have ribosomes for assembling amino acids into proteins
  • Both have DNA and RNA

Differences

  • Prokaryotes are much smaller, around 0.1-5 μm in diameter, whereas eukaryotic cells are between 10 and 100 μm in diameter
  • Prokaryotes have a far less developed cytoskeleton with no centioles
  • Whereas eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, prokaryotes only have a nucleoid of genetic material which isn't membrane-bound
  • Prokaryotes have naked DNA which is not wound around histone proteins as DNA is eukaryotic cells is, but rather as a loop
  • Some prokaryotic cells also have plasmids, small loops of DNA
  • Prokaryotic cells don't have membrane bound organelles
  • Prokaryotic cell walls are made of peptidoglycan rather than cellulose or chitin
  • Some prokaryotic cells have a protective waxy capsule surrounding their cell wall
  • Prokaryotes have smaller ribosomes
  • Some prokaryotic cells have flagella for movement, which differ from eukaryotic undulipodia
  • Some prokaryotic cells have pili - small hair-like projections that enable them to adhere to host cells or to each other, and allow the passage of plasmid DNA from one cell to another
  • Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission rather than mitosis

Overall comparison

Prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells in terms of their size, structure and genetic material

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