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Prokaryotic Cell functions
- Plasma Membrane -controls the movement of substances into and out of cells.
- Cytoplasm -Site of chemical reactions within the cell.
- Genetic Material -Composed of a circle of double stranded DNA.
- 70s Ribosomes -Used for protein synthesis
- Cell Wall -Made of peptidoglycan. Provides structural support. Prevents osmotic damage when water enters the cell.
- Pili -Small hair like appendages around the outside of the cell. For adhesion and to transfer genetic material between bacteria.
- Flagellum -Longer appendage which is used for locomotion and often also a sensory organelle.
- Food stores -Typically lipid globules or glycogen granules.
- Photosynthetic membranes -Surfaces for light absorbing pigments.
- Plasmids -Short pieces of circular DNA which replicate independently of the genome.
- Capsule -A gummy layer of mucilage,may unite bacteria into colonies or confer protection.
- Mesosomes -infoldings of the plasma membrane in which enzymes associated with with respiration are located (where energy happens). A protein gradient generated across these membranes is used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
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Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
- Size- Prokaryotic smaller (1-10 µm), Eukaryotic larger (10-100 µm)
- Cell Wall- Prokaryotic consists of murein, Eukaryotic consists of cellulose or chitin
- Membrane Bound Organelles- Prokaryotic has none, Eukaryotic has them
- DNA- Prokaryotic circular but there are no true chromosomes present, Eukaryotic DNA is in the nucleus with proteins which form chromosomes
- Ribosomes- Prokayotic they are smaller 70s, Eukaryotic larger 80s
- Nucleus- Prokaryotic none, Eukaryotic the nucleus is surronded by a nuclear envelope
- Nucleolus- Prokaryotic none, Eukaryotic nucleolous present
- Microtubules- Prokaryotic Flagellum lacks microtubules, Eukaryotic9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
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