Why was there no settlement 1646-9?

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Why was there no settlement 1646-9?
    • The King
      • Knew that without his consent there would be no settlement
        • As soon as he realised the peace terms were negotiable he dragged them out for as long as possible
          • Eventually this irritated the Army enough to carry out Prides' Purge: CI had shown he was not interested in negotiating
        • tried to escape from making any meaningful concessions
          • Escaped from Army custody to start the second civil war, leading to the Vote of No Addresses
        • Addicted to his old habits of indecision and deception
      • The disunity among his opponents was so great that he thought they would fall apart if he played for time
      • Stubborn core of principled opposition: believed that the powers of the monarchy and episcopal government were not his to give away
        • he didn't understand his mistakes or why people opposed Laudian reforms
        • Refused all offers which decreased monarchical power
          • including the Heads of the Proposals and the Newcastle Propositions
            • Treaty of Newport: Lord Saye  and Sele begged CI on his knees to accept the offer
        • During his trial repeatedly refused to plead guilty to anything: never showed any guilt or remorse
      • The Second Civil War 1648
        • Localist risings in East Anglia, Kent, Wales and the North. Some army mutinies and a Scottish invasion (but total failure for Charles)
        • April 1648 Windsor prayer Meeting: The Army resolved to 'call Charles Stuart, that man of blood, to account for that blood he had shed'
          • People believed it had been God's will that CI had lost the first Civil War- by fighting a second he was going against God
            • Cromwell: 'a man against whom the Lord hath witnessed'
          • No more blame on evil advisors: Charles himself could not be trusted
    • The Army
      • Timeline
        • Spring 1647
          • Summer 1647
            • June 1647: Cornet Joyce kidnaps Charles, puts him under Army control
            • October 1647
              • November 1647
                • Charles escaped from army custody in Hampton Court
                • Putney debates end in stalemate (eg Oliver Cromwell promises a reforming committee)
                • Army mutiny at Ware in Hereford put down
                • December 1647
                  • Jan 1648
                    • Parliament passes the Vote of No Addresses
                    • Second Civil War
                      • The NMA wins easily
                  • Charles signs the Engagement with the Scots
              • Levellers: new agitators publish 'the case of the Army truly stated' and 'The Agreement of the People
                • Called for more protection for the common soldier, and for payment of arrears
                • called for law reform, abolition of Tithes, abolition of the House of Lords, a vote for every male head of household
              • Putney debates begin
            • 14th June: The Declaration of the Army: not a 'mere mercenary army.. but a political entity for the defense of right'
              • 5 June: the 'solemn engagement'
            • July 1647: the Heads of the Proposals presented to Charles
              • Very generous peace terms
            • August 1647: the Army invades London to reinstate Independent MPs who had been driven out by mobs
          • Parliament tried to disband the army quickly, purge it of Independent officers and send it to Ireland to suppress the rebellion. Disbanded soldiers were only to be given 8 weeks pay
            • March 1647: Declaration of Dislike
          • Petitions from Army officers ignored
            • April 1647: first agitators elected
      • The Army was a centre for godly religious and political radicalism
        • 'the praying army'
        • Influence of the levellers and puritan preachers
        • undisbanded troops had nothing to do
          • A key political entity from June 1647 (the Solemn Engagement)
        • The Self-Denying Ordinance: MPs did not control the Army
        • Had economic/ political interests opposed to the Long Parliament
          • Parliament unable to meet the army's grievances
        • Had the military strength to carry out their own agenda
          • claimed a RIGHT to political action 'not a mere mercenary army'
            • Seen as responsible for civil war victory
      • Why didn't the Army want a settlement?
        • Angry at CI's refusal of the Heads of the Proposals
        • Felt that by waging the Second Civil War CI had gone against God's will
        • Levellers
        • April 1648: Windsor Prayer meeting
      • What did they do to prevent a settlement?
        • Army remonstrance: wanted to keep the king but as a figurehead
        • Agreement of the people: no monarchy
        • between the first and second civil wars parliament abandoned negotiations to appease the Levellers
        • Prides Purge (6 Dec 1648)
    • The Scots
      • Belived that their contribution to the war effort was consistently underestimated
      • Distrustful of Parliament and the New Model army
        • Parliament had promised to implement presbyterianism but they didn't/ couldn't
          • The Marquess of Argyll : had felt that only a parliamentary victory could secure presbyterianism in Scotland
      • January 1647: the Engagement
        • Drove enemies (parliament and NMA together)
          • Vote of No Addresses January 1648
      • The Earl of Montrose : sided with the King because he felt that parliament was encroaching on royal prerogative
        • Duke of Hamilton : stayed neutral in first CW but led the army of Engagers: captured and executed by Cromwell

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »