What is Intelligence?

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  • What is Intelligence?
    • 1904 -  cognitive ability in one test would give similar results on other tests
      • cognitive skills or 'general cognitive ability' (g) is what we might call intelligence.
    • there are over 100 skills which someone uses when planning what to do
      • 1942, it was suggested that intelligence is not what we know but what we do when we don't know something.
      • The 100 skills were categorised into fluid intelligence (gf) AND crystallised intelligence (gc)
        • gf= biological ability  gc= ability learnt over time.
        • Horn (1967) assessed development of IQ and found that gf is higher for younger adults than older adults but gc is higher for older adults.
    • Sternberg (1985) developed his triarchic theory of intelligence which is based on 3 skills
      • Analytical intelligence: skills of analysing, evaluating and judging.
      • Practical intelligence: skills used when actually implementing ideas.
      • Creative intelligence: Skills used when dealing with new or novel ideas and creating.
    • Two aspects of emotional intelligence (EI) were identified by Goleman (1996)
      • Understanding others and their feelings.
      • Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions and behaviour.


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