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  • Weathering
    • Mechanical
      • Freeze-Thaw - water expands 9% when freezes to form ice
      • Salt-crystal growth - as crystals grow they expert pressure
      • Exfoliation - surface layers flake off
      • wet/dry - expands when wet and contracts when dry
      • granular disintegration - rock crystals expand and contract
      • block disintegration - jointed rocks expand and contract
      • Pressure-release - weight is taken off the rocks
    • Biological
      • by plants and animals involving both mechanical inputs, such as root growth and chemical impacts such as release of organic acids
    • Chemical
      • Oxidation - oxygen reacts with minerals like iron
      • Carbonic Acid - rainwater is carbonic acid
      • Hydrolysis
      • Hydration


Holl van Driel


This is excellent

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