# Waves 1

• Created by: Hollie
• Created on: 28-05-14 12:12
• Waves 1
• Longitudinal waves
• Oscillations are parallel to the direction of the wave
• Example: Sound waves - vibrations ore passed through the air causing particles to be displaced from their equilibrium positions forming compressions and rarefractions.
• Transverse waves
• Oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of the wave
• Example: Light
• Characteristics
• Amplitude - the maximum displacement of a particle in a wave
• Wavelength - the distance between two identical points on successive waves
• Frequency - the number of complete waves passing a point in one second
• Period - time taken for one complete oscillation (1/f)
• Superposition
• In phase - two waves with a phase difference of a whole number of wavelengths travelling in the same direction
• Constructive interference - when two waves are in phase forming a wave of a larger amplitude
• Maxima - forms an antinode where constructive interference takes place.
• Antiphase - two waves with a phase difference of an odd number of half wavelengths travelling in opposite directions.
• Path difference - the difference in the distance traveled by two waves
• When two or more waves arrive at the same place at the same time, superposition occurs and waves interfere with a resultant displacement being the sum of the individual displacements.
• Standing waves - formed by the superposition of a continuous wave reflected from a boundary forming an intereference pattern of maxima and minima.
• Maxima - forms an antinode where constructive interference takes place.
• Minima - forms nodes where destructive interference takes place. The distance between two adjacent minimas is half the wavelength.
• Destructive interference - when two waves are antiphase and the waves cancel out
• Antiphase - two waves with a phase difference of an odd number of half wavelengths travelling in opposite directions.