Water and Carbon Cycles Mind Map 1

  • Created by: lala2127
  • Created on: 05-06-19 19:04
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  • Water and Carbon Cycles - 1
    • Natural Systems
      • Systems
        • inputs
        • outputs
        • stores
        • flows
        • boundaries
      • Open Systems
        • energy and matter
        • enter and leave
        • e.g. drainage basin
      • Closed Systems
        • matter - cycle
        • energy - enter and leave
        • e.g. carbon cycle
      • Feedback
        • positive feedback
          • amplify change
          • negative impact
        • negative feedback
          • positive impact
          • counteract change
        • inupt = output: equilibrium
        • varied inputs + outputs: dynamic equilibrium
      • Subsystems
        • cryosphere
        • lithosphere
        • biosphere
        • hydrosphere
        • atmosphere
    • The Water Cycle
      • Forms
        • solid
        • liquid
        • gas
      • Fresh Water
        • cryosphere
          • 69%
        • groundwater
          • 30%
        • freshwater - liquid
          • 0.3%
        • water vapour
          • 0.04%
        • - 3% (total)
      • Global Hydrological Cycle
        • continuous cycles
        • closed system
          • no inputs
          • no outputs
      • Flows
        • evaporation
          • liquid -> gas
          • magnitude
            • varies: location / season
          • energy - solar radiation
        • condensation
          • gas -> liquid
          • energy low
          • magnitude
            • amount of water vapour in atmosphere
        • Precipitation
          • water vapour condenses
          • main flow
          • warm air = cool
    • Drainage Basins
      • Natural Systems
        • open cycle
        • boundary - watershed
        • input
          • precipitation
        • output
          • river discharge
      • Defenition
        • area surrounding river where rain flows into that river
      • Inputs
        • precipitation
          • rain
          • hail
          • snow
      • Stores
        • interception
        • vegetation
        • surface
        • soil
      • Flows
        • infiltration
        • overland flow
        • throughfall
        • percolation
        • channel flow
      • Outputs
        • evaporation
        • transpiration
        • evapo - transpiration
        • river discharge
      • Water Balance
        • difference between inputs and outputs
        • wet season
          • water surplus
        • dry season
          • water defecit
          • water recharged in wet season
    • Runoff Variations
      • Hydrographs
        • river discharge over time
        • river discharge - cubic metres, m3
      • Shape of Hydrograph
        • factors
          • size of drainage basin
          • shape of drainage basin
          • steepness
          • rock type
          • soil type
      • Physical Factors
        • seasonal changes
        • vegetation
        • storms
        • precipitation
      • Human Factors
        • farming
        • land use change
        • water abstraction

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