Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Geography Revision: World at Risk

There are two types of hazards, geophysical (to do with tectonic/geological processes) and
hydro-metrological (to do with water and atmosphere).

Geophysical hazard Hydro-metrological hazard
Volcano Cyclone
Opening within Earth's crust, where magma, Area of low atmospheric pressure created when
gases, ash and dust are ejected.…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
occur. After several eruptions, the volcano will grow above sea level to from an island and
make an island arc.
Ocean to Continent; ocean and continent plate go towards each other because of
convection currents in the mantle. The ocean plate is forced to go under because it is heavier.…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Global Hazard Patterns




Frequency
Deaths Cost

Better technology to predict these hazards, even the small ones
More prepared, better technology, equipment and buildings
More developed insurance companies.




Emrana Khatun 3

Page 4

Preview of page 4
El Nino

Warm ocean current that appears off the west coast of South America.
It replaces the cool ocean current which is usually found.
It is used to describe a pro longed period of warmer-than-average conditions that occurs
because of the warm ocean current
It usually happens for 12-18 months…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
CASE STUDY: CALIFORNIA

West coast of USA
North American plate and the Pacific Plate
The San Andreas Fault (fracture within crust of Earth, forms the boundary between the two
plates). Fault travels nearly the entire length of coast,
Cities located on this fault. E.g. LA, Santa Barbra, San Diego
50mm…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Long Term:

CO2 levels; bubbles trapped in ice from Greenland and Antarctica ice cores. Cores removed
from ice sheet reveal layers going down. Each layer records reason of snowfall.
Oxygen isotope record; sampled from ice cores and ocean sediments. Ratio of oxygen 16 to
oxygen 18 isotopes is a good…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
TIPPING POINT: When damage from climate change occurs irreversibly at an increasing rate



CASE STUDY: THE ARCTIC

Vegetation shifts; going northwards, which will destabilise the food webs but will benefit
agriculture
Thawing permafrost; 40% expected to thaw e.g. Siberia. This will release large amounts of
methane. Also lakes and rivers…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Examples: setting targets to reduce CO2 emissions, `capturing' carbon emissions from power
stations and storing them for instance in spent oil wells, switching to renewable resources e.g. wind
power.



KYOTO PROTOCAL

1997, Japan, reduce emissions by 5% by 2012.
Only USA didn't sign
Not been a huge success, lots of…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Carbon Offsetting

Carbon offsetting is a credit system, called carbon credits, which aims to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions
Carbon credits allow companies to pollute, but at a cost
Each credit costs money which polluters have to pay, and is in proportion to the pollution
produced
The cost encourages companies to…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Poverty

Lack of water leads to dehydrations, also diseases spread quickly
Famine
Lack of work, can't afford to look after family
Bad housing, prone to collapse dies to hazards
Population growth, poverty increases
Little healthcare, diseases spread
Debt, can't afford to pay off, stuck in debt



Sustainable development: strategies

Developing…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »