Vitamins and Minerals Mind map

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  • Vitamins
    • D
      • Found in most food in very small quantity , produced under skin by the action of sunlight.
        • Fat soluble, cannot be destroyed by cooking, very stable to heat.
      • Added to Marg by law
        • Found also in fatty fish and eggs
      • Aids absorption of calcium in the small intestine to to ensure strong teeth and bones
      • Lack of vitamin D can cause rickets
        • People who are exposed to no natural light due to covering themselves in full clothing due to religious reasons can be more prone to rickets.
      • Excess stored in liver and fatty body tissues
      • Pregnant woman need lots to help growth of baby
    • A
      • Know as Retinol and Carotene
        • Retinol is found in liver,eggs, butter, fish and oils
          • 3 quarters of all vitamin A is found in
        • Carotene is found in orange and yellow fruits and vegetables. e.g. tomatoes, carrots and mangos
      • Fat soluble
        • E
          • Known as Tocopherol
            • Found in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, egg yolk and cereals
          • Stable when heated
          • Does not dissolve in water
          • Keeps lungs and red blood cells healthy
          • Could prevent some cancers and protect against heart disease
          • Can be used to preserve fats and oils ion the body
          • Deficiency, rarely found
      • Destroyed by heat and air
      • Not lost in water
      • Helps bone growth
      • Aids night vision
      • Deficiency can result in, dry skin, slow growth in children , impaired vision, eventually blindness
    • E
      • Known as Tocopherol
        • Found in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, egg yolk and cereals
      • Stable when heated
      • Does not dissolve in water
      • Keeps lungs and red blood cells healthy
      • Could prevent some cancers and protect against heart disease
      • Can be used to preserve fats and oils ion the body
      • Deficiency, rarely found
    • K
      • Found in liver, leafy green veg, fruits, dairy products, veg oil, cereals and meat
        • Essential for blood clottiong
        • Regulates quantity of calcium in blood.
      • Fat soluble and stable when heated
      • Deficiency can cause blood not to clot, internal bleeding and anaemia.
        • Vitamin K dificiancy can occur in new borns due to lack of vitamin K in the mothers breast milk
    • B
      • Known as Thiamin, Niacin, Riboflavin and Folic acid
        • Thiamin is found in Brazil nuts and peanuts
          • Destroyed by heat
          • Realises energy from fats and carbohydrate
        • Niacin is found in dried peaches, peanuts and dried apricots
          • Forms part of an enzyme which releases energy
        • Riboflavin is found in almonds, mushrooms, spinach and broccoli
          • Destroyed by alkili
          • Releases energy from food
        • Folic acid is found in green vegetables and potatoes.
          • Lack of Folic acid can cause anaemia.
          • Extra is required during pregnancy to ensure the baby is not born with spinabifida
        • water soluble
        • All found in cereals wheat-germ, yeast, meat fish, dairy produce pulses.
        • Deficiency can lead to loss of appetite,confusion, cracked lips, dermatitis, diarrhoea, beri- beri, and slow growth in children.
          • Lack of Folic acid can cause anaemia.
    • C
      • Found in citrus fruits, blackcurrants, potatoes, red and green peppers, tomatoes, and strawberries
      • Deficiency
        • Scurvy
        • Poor skin
        • Slow healing of wounds
      • Water soluble
      • Easily destroyed when heated
      • Protects against infection and allergies
      • Helps absorb calcium and iron
    • Vitamins and Minerals
      • Minerals
        • Sodium
          • Found naturally in fish
            • Also added to most manufactured food
            • Part of MSG
          • Used to preserve food such as bacon and smoked fish
          • Maintains extra cellular fluids in the body
          • Needed in body
            • excess can lead to high blood pressure and eventually kidney, liver and heart failure
            • Extra needed in hot climates due to large amounts lost in sweat
        • Flouride
          • Found in seafood, fluoridated water and toothpaste
          • Helps keep bones and teeth stong because it helps calciunm stay in them
          • Combines with tooth enamel to keep the healthy
          • Lack of can cause tooth decay
          • Makes teeth resistant to the acid produced in the mouth
        • Phosphoros
          • Found in most plant and animal cells however most prominent in bananas, nuts meat and cereal products
          • Function
            • Aids the formation of teeth and bones
            • Provides energy
          • Deficiency
            • Unknown in most humans
              • Lack of can cause Tetany (twitching of hands and feet)
              • Muscles may also become floppy (flaccid)
        • Potassium
          • Lack of can cause heart attacks
          • Found in yeast extract, dried fruit, pulses, green leafy veg, whole grains and fruit jucies
          • Function
            • Allows electrolytes to move in and out of cells
            • Allows nerves and muscles to function properly
            • Helps remove excess sodium
            • Can help prevent high blood presure
        • Iodine
          • Lack of can cause metabolism to be lowered
          • Function
            • Needed for the development of the nervous system of a foetus
            • It is found in the thyroid gland where it is used in hormones needed to maintain metabolism and connective tissue.
          • Found in seafood, seaweed,milk,meat and eggs
          • Lack of can also cause a swelling of the neck called goitre due to the enlargement of thyroid
        • Iron
          • Found in liver, kidney, churned beef, curry power, white bread, treacle, dried fruit and cocoa ,plain chocolate and water cress.
          • Helps transport oxygen tom all parts of the body.
          • produces energy
          • Functions
            • Maintains cell functions.
            • Important part of haemoglobin
              • Oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells.
                • Need to be replaced
                  • When blood is lost
                    • Through menstruation
                    • After injury
          • More required during pregnancy
            • Babies born with a good supply
          • Deficiency leads to anaemia, lack of concentration and general health is affected
        • Calcium
          • Found in milk and cheese, also added to white bread by law, also in canned fish and hard water and green veg
          • Function
            • Works with phosphorous to strengthen bones and teeth
            • Clots blood
            • Needed for correct working of nerves and muscles.
              • Deficiency can cause them yo not work properly
            • Needs to be consumed every day to replace and make new bone
          • Deficiency
            • Can cause osteoporosis
            • Teeth don't form properly
            • Bones are not strong enough (rickets)
          • Vitamin D aids its absorbtion
            • Cellulose can affect its absorption, found in green vegetables

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