What are the main nutrients?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, and Minerals
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What does Protein help with?
Growth and Repair
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Where are Proteins found?
They can be found in animal products like meat, cheese, fish, eggs and milk. They can also be found in plants like soya, pulses and nuts..
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What do Carbohydrates help do in the body?
Carbohydrates are used to give the body energy
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Which are the two types of Carbohydrates?
There is starch carbohydrates and sugar carbohydrates
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What does Fat provide for the body?
Fat provides concentrated sources of energy and even helps to insulate the body as well
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What is the difference between Saturated Fats and Polyunsaturated Fats?
Saturated Fats are normally found in animal sources whereas Polyunsaturated are found in plant sources
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Why are Vitamins important in the body?
They are needed for growth and health
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Which Vitamins are the main ones?
Vitamin A, Vitamin B (there are many types in this), Vitamin C and Vitamin D.
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What do people need Vitamin A for and what sources can they be found in?
They are needed becuase they help with good eye vision, healthy skin and growth. This can be found in green products and dairy products
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Why did we need Vitamin B and what can it be found in?
This is used for release of energy in food and for healthy skin too. Vitamin B is found in bread, milk and eggs
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What does Vitamin B12 do? What sources is it found in?
It helps with red blood cells, and it is found in sources like milk, meat and fish
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Why is Vitamin C needed for the body?
It is needed for healthy skin, needed to protect cells and to help absorb iron
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Products Vitamin C is found in?
Fruit and vegetables
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Sources of Vitamin D and what is needed for?
Vitamin D is found in margarine and oily fish, and is needed for strong teeth/bones and to help absorb calcium
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Minerals are need because......
it helps the body function correctly and stay strong
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Which are the two main minerals?
Calcium and Iron
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Why is Calcium required in the body?
It is required in the growth of healthy teeth and bones
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Some sources of calcium are......
milk, cheese, eggs, wholegrain cereals, green vegetables, bread and tofu
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What does Iron help do?
Helps with the formation of red blood cells
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Where can Iron be found?
red meat, green vegetables, eggs, lentils and different types of bread
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Some other minerals are....
Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium and Zinc
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How many nutrional properties are there and what are they?
There are four altogether and they are starch, suar, proteins and fats
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What can Starch do when mixed with other ingrediants?
Starch thickens a liquid by forming a suspension like in a sauce for example. Also it forms a gel when the suspension is heated, for example with cornflour, custard flour or even milk mix
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What can Sugar be used for?
It can be used to sweeten foods/ sauces, it can also be used for colour through caramelising at certain temperatures and aerates when beaten with fat like in a cake
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What does Protein do?
It can cause coagulation (makes sauces etc firmer, less runny) and can cause aeration in a mixtures like meringue mixtures
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What can be done with Fat when incorperated with other ingredients?
It helps to shorten pastry/ make it more crumbly/ less stretchy, can act as an emulsifying agent to stop two liquids from separating and moistens a baked mixture such as a cake
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What is aerating?
Aerating incorperates air when sieving, creaming, whisking, beating, folding and rolling, or rubbing in.Though raising agents can be used as well
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What is coagualtion?
Coagulation is when liquid turns to solid like raw eggs being clear and runny to white and solid when heated.
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What is perserving?
Preserving helps food to last longer through methods like freezing, canning, jam-making, or pickling. Fats, sugar and oil are used in preserving
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What is tenderising?
Tenderising makes tough meat more tender/ easier to eat through things like marinading or others like mechanical methods
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What is thickening?
Thickening uses eggs, pulses, cereals and fruit to thicken liquids such as milk, and heat is usually applied
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What combining methods are there?
Binding, Bulking, Enrobing, Enriching, Fermenation, Flavouring, Shortening, Stabilising and Setting
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What does Bindng do?
Binding uses fats, eggs, cereals and flour to bind ingredients
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What does Bulking do?
Bulking forms the main structure of a food product, such as flour in biscuits and cakes.
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What does Enrobing mean?
Enrobing means coating a food with another ingredients, for example, dipping fish in beaten egg and then breadcrumbs.
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What is Enriching?
Enriching is the addition of an ingredient to improve the quality. Nutrients are sometimes added to increase nutritional value.
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What happens during Fermenation?
When Fermentation happens yeast converts carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide, yeast is normally used in bread making
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What is Flavouring?
Flavouring is the addition of ingrediants to give a slightly different taste. Flavouring can be savoury, like herbs and spices, or sweet, like sugar or sweeteners
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What does Shortening do?
Shortening uses oils and fats to reduce the development of gluten in pastry or other doughs
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What happens when Stabilising occurs?
It helps keep a food stay in one structure
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What is Setting?
Setting is the mix of ingredients to make foods firm, such as gelatine to set cold desserts.
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What three techniques are there to finish off a product to make it look good?
Browning, Glazing and Icing
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What do Browning, Glazing and Icing do?
Browning includes the incoperation of fats, eggs, sugar, milk, flour or oil, which darken a food when heated, Glazing adds a shiny coating, for example, pastry brushed with beaten egg before cooking and finally Icing adds texture and colour
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What is Palatability?
Pralatabiltiy is the appeal of the food, and includes taste, colour and smell.
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What types of food structures are there?
Solution, Colloid, Emulsion, Foam, Gel and Suspension
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What is Solution?
Solution is when one substance dissolves in another one
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What is Colloid?
Colloid is a general term for when two substances are mixed together. For example milk has a colloidal structure, because it is made from microscopic drops of fat dispersed in a water-based liquid.
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What is Emulsion?
Emulsion is when two unblendable liquids are mixed together
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What is Foam?
Foam is when air bubbles are incorporated into a liquid, such as in whipped cream and meringue
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What is Gel?
Gel contains a small amount of a solid in a large amount of liquid. A small amount of gelatine can set a large amount of liquid.
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What is Suspension?
Suspension is when a solid is held in a liquid. The solid may sink if the mixture is not stirred
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What two types of additive are there?
Natural and Artifical
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What is a Natural additive?
Natural additives are found naturely in foods, they can be extracted from certain food and put into others
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What is a Artifical additive?
Artifical additives are not natural. These are made specifically for certain processes
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Why are additives needed in some cases?
Preserving, colouring, flavouring and as emulsifiers
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Why do we need to preserve foods?
So that foods can last longer without becoming mouldy etc earlier than needed
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Why do people add colour to foods?
To make it look more appealing and attractive to eat
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Why are emulsifiers included in foods?
This prevents foods from seperating into sections
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How are foods measured?
They are measuered by the level of pH, hw acidic they are and how much alkini is in it
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What are the effects of foods having acidicity or alkalinity properties?
The taste is final and it also affects the rate of which microorganisims grow in or on foods
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How can acidity or alkalinity affect certain types of foods?
Acidic fruit mixed with milk will cause the mixture to curdle, Vinegar (acid) is added to meringue to give it a soft marshmallow texture, Bicarbonate of soda (alkaline) acts as a raising agent during baking, Lemon juice (acid) helps prevent fruits li
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What are considered as microorganisms?
Yeast, Bacteria and Mould
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What can microorganisms do?
They can change the food, even make it unedible
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What can make foods less resisant to microorganisms?
Heating and cooling, these affect how they stay fresh
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What does chilling do?
It slows down the growth of microorganisms in foods such as dairy products, cooked foods, and raw ingrediants. The temperature has to be between 0 degrees and 5 degrees
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What does freezing do?
Freezing maintains freshness and safety but will kill the bacteria and so forth but will stop it from growing while at the temperatures of -18°C or below. You can freeze ready meals, meat and vegetables
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Why do we need food to be at 72 degrees when reheating?
We need it at 72 because it would stop us from getting food poisoning
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What stages are needed to make sure food meet the correct requirements?
Brief, Market Management and Design Specification
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What is meant by a Brief?
The Brief is when foods are sorted to meet requirements for certain types of people, for example those who have lactose intolerance
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What is meant by Market Research?
Market Research is where shops go and look around at different shopping habits and looking at studies of market trends. This is accomplished by things like surveys, questionaires etc
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What is meant by Design Specification?
The design specification is the first attempt at listing the needs of the product. It includes: size shape shelf life weight sensory characteristics (taste, texture, appearance, etc) costs ingredients (with quantities) equipment
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Which testings are included when doing sensory testing?
Ranking, Rating, and Profile Testing
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What happens in Ranking Testing?
Products are tested for a specific characteristic, for example saltiness. Samples are given randomly coded names, and testers sort the products from most to least salty.
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What happens in Rateing Testing?
Products are tested for a specific characteristic to find out if there is a noticeable difference between two products
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What happens in Profile Testing?
The profile of a product can be recorded as a star diagram. Testers rate characteristics on a five point scale (1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest)
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Why do we modify products?
Any changes to the design specification need to be made before the final manufacturing specification is prepared. For example, sensory testing may reveal that the food is too spicy, so the ingredients may need to be modified.
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Why is manufacturing specification needed?
Manufacturing specification lists information a manufacturer needs to produce the product. The specification records the stages of the production process, with details of all the characteristics (shape, size, texture, colour, flavour etc) required in
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What is a stanard component?
A standard component is a pre-prepared ingredient used in the production of a food product, like pizza bases or ready-made sauces.
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What is Quality Assurance?
Quality assurance guarantees that food meets a clear, consistent set of standards. At key stages in production there should be quality control checks so manufacturers are alerted to any problems.
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What are the Quality Checks?
Weight, Visual, Temerature, pH, Microbiological, Chemical, Metal, and Organoleptic checks
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What are Microbiological Checks?
Microbiological checks are to make sure bacteria isn't at harmful levels
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What are Organoleptic Checks?
Organoleptic checks check the flavour, texture and aroma by sampling the food product
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What is the purpose of food packaging?
It preserves the product, protects the product from damage, makes the product more attractive to consumers and makes it easier to transport the product
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Why is Plastic used for packaging?
Because it is versatile, resistant to acidic products, easy to print on, light in weight and is cheap to make
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What does M.A.P stand for?
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Why do we have modified atmosphere packaging?
Becuase the air in the plastic container can be modified to prolong shelf life and slow down colour deterioration
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On which products is modified atmosphere packaging used on?
Cold Meats, Smoked Fish, Cheeses, Salads and Fresh Pasta
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What are some other materials used for packaging?
Paper, Card, Metal and Glass
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Why do we use environmental friendly products?
Because it causes less damage to the environment
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What are the three types of environmental friendly packaging?
Reusable packaging, Recyclable packaging and Biodegradable packaging
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Why is Reusable Packaging used?
Reusable packaging can be cleaned and re-used
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Why is Recyclable packaging used?
Recyclable packaging is made of materials that can be used again. These can be made of glass, metal, card and paper
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Why is Biodegradable packaging used?
Biodegradable packaging will easily break down in the soil or the atmosphere
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How many layers of packaging are there?
Three: Primary, Secondary and Transit Packaging
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What happens at the Primary Packaging?
It is seen as the point of sale. It needs to contain and protect the food product, as well as display it and provide information.
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What happens at the Secondary Packaging?
Secondary packaging is the middle layer of packaging - for example a cardboard box with a number of identical products inside
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What happens at the Transit Packaging?
Transit packaging is the outer container that allows easier handling during transfer between factory, distribution centres and retailers
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What are the main things required by the law on packaging?
Manufacturer's name, contact details, name of the product, description of the product, weight (for example bread), ingredients (listed in descending order of weight), cooking/heating instructions, storage instructions and shelf life
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What is not required to be on the packaging?
Illustration of product, price, nutritional values of the product, customer guarantee, the batch-code, bar-code numbers and opening instructions
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How have they made it easier for people to know the Nutritonal Value of foods?
The Food Standards Agency devised a traffic light system to make it easier for consumers to know the nutritional content of food
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What affects the foods that the consumers eat?
Social, environmental and ethical factors
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Examples of social factors are.....
multicultures and their own traditional cuisines, TV programmes promoting different foods, travel to other countries, and improved tranportation systems
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Examples of environmental and ethical factors are.....
fair trade, farm assured, food miles, free range, genetically modified food, organic food, seasonal foods and sustanability
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What does Organic mean?
It means food has been grown with no chemicals
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What does Food Miles mean?
Food miles is the distance between where the food is grown and where it is sold/bought
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Why are there different diets in place?
For health reasons like: allergies, intolerances, or even needed weight loss
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What type of diets are there?
Calorie controlled, Coeliac disease, Diabetes, Lactose intolerance, Nut allergy, Vegetarian and High Fibre Diets
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What is Coeliac disease?
Coeliac Disease is when someone has an intolerance to gluten
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What can not be absorbed by the the body?
Fibre or Non Starch Polysaccharide (NSP)
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Why is fibre important?
It is important because it helps with an healthy digestive system
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What are two types of fibre?
Soluble Fibre - found in fruit, vegetables, pulses and oats - which helps with blood cholestral. Insoluble Fibre - which is found in cereal like bread or pasta - this helps to stimulate the digestive system
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What are the effects of an unhealthy diet?
It can lead to coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, tooth decay and diabetes
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Production Systems consist of what?
Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Feedback
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What are inputs?
Inputs are everything that goes into the system, such as the ingredients
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What are Processes?
Processes include weighing, mixing, shaping and forming of mixtures, cooking, cooling, and packaging
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What are Outputs?
Outputs is the end of a product, complete with packaging
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What is Feedback?
Feedback can happen throughout the production process. Control checks flag up the need for alteration and improvement to the inputs or processes
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What are the manufacturing methods?
One-off production, Batch production, Mass production and Continuous-flow production
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What is One-off Production?
One-off production is when a single product is made for a specific purpose
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What is Batch Production?
Batch production involves making a set number of identical products.
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What is Mass Production?
Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale. The production line involves repetitive tasks so machines are often used
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What is Continuous-flow production?
Continuous-flow production is a high-volume production method where machines run 24 hours a day
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What does C.A.D (Computer Aided Design) help with?
It helps create, modify and communicate information efficiently
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What is C.A.D used for?
Nutritional analysis software, Simulate changes to inputs and processes, Calculates costs and amounts, Packaging design and advertising decisions, Sensory profile software and Production flowcharts
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What does Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) do?
It efficiently controls and monitors production using computers
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Examples of C.A.M being used is when......
monitoring temperatures, monitoring weights, checking the pH, controlling the conveyor belt speed and monitoring quantities of ingredients
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Advantages of the C.A.M are.....
more consistent results, it reduces labour costs, that it improves accuracy, reduces waste faster for high-volume production, improved saftey and hygiene easier monitoring
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Disadvantages of the C.A.M are.....
the expensises being too high, needing skilled operaters and slow one-offs or low volume production
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What types of equipment is needed to make sure products are run efficiently?
Electronic scales, Depositor, Mandolin, Food processor, Hand blender, Dough hook, Electric whisk, Cutters, Temperature probe, Tunnel oven, Deck oven, Boiling vats and Date-stamping machine
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What should food be matched to?
The desired outcome
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What is a standard component?
A standard Component is a pre-prepared ingrediant
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What are some examples of standard components?
Pizza bases, Ready-made sauces, Ready-made cake mixes, Frozen pastry, Ready-made icing and Stock cubes
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Advantages of using standard components:......
ensures consistency, saves time and effort, less skill required by staff, less specialist equipment needed which can reduce costs, components bought in bulk, and reduces risk - high risk foods prepared elsewhere
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Disadvantages of using standard components:......
less reliable - one manufacturer depends on another, components can be more expensive, sensory qualities may not be as good as fresh ingredients, large amount of storage space, time needed for ordering and delivery
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What is Hazard Analysis?
Hazard Analysis anyalyses what could go wrong during production of foodsand reduces the risk of problems
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What are the three main types of hazard analysis?
Biological, Physical and Chemical Hazards
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What is a Biological Hazard?
Biological hazards are for example when bacteria infects your food and could give food poisoning as well
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What is a Physical Hazard?
A physical hazard is when something could cause injury to someone
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What is a Chemical Hazard?
A chemical hazard is when chemicals like cleaning fluid for example could contaminate the food and cause severe illness
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What are Critical control points (CCPs)?
Critical control points (CCPs) are pre-determined checks that take place at specified points in the food production or preparation process
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What are some examples of Critical control points?
Temperatures, Cooking Times and making sure food is handled correctly
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Why is good personal hygiene important?
It is important because it reduces hazard risks, it is also a legal requirement to state if you have a illness
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Other cards in this set
What does Protein help with?
Growth and Repair
Where are Proteins found?
What do Carbohydrates help do in the body?
Which are the two types of Carbohydrates?
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