Vestibulo ocular reflex

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  • Vestibulo Ocular reflex
    • Function
      • to hold the retinal image steady during breif rotation
        • if not vision would be fuzzy
      • very accurate 1:1 gain
      • works with head velocity of 1-5KHz
    • Ocular muscles
      • six muscles that control the movement of the eye
      • Muscles arranged in pairs
        • oriented in similar planes as semicircular canals
      • results in synchonised movements with head
      • eg head movement to the right
        • contraction of left lateral rectus and relaxation of right lateral rectus
    • Otolith organs of  vestibular system
      • two types
        • saccule
          • vertical forces
        • utricle
          • horizontal forces
      • both contain
        • Macula
          • hair cells covered in gelatinous mass
          • contains sensory epithelium
            • hair cells and supporting cells
        • Otoconia
          • stones made of calcium carbonate that respond to forces
          • make the otolithic membrane considerably heavier
            • allowing recognition of head movements
      • function
        • detect forces that come from
          • linear acceleration
          • static tilt of the head
          • static tilt due to gravity
      • damage will lead to impaired body stabalisation
    • Neural Innervation
      • Vestibular portion of eighth cranial nerve has two devisions
      • both innervate semi-circular canals, utricle and saccule
    • blood supply
      • complex arterial system to cochlea and vestibular system
      • some parts of vestibular system receive their own supply
      • explain vestibular damage without hearing loss


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