utilitarianism, detailed content

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 02-01-13 21:29
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Bentham
      • Principle of Utility
        • rightness or/and wrongness determind by usefulness
          • Usefulness refers to amount of happiness produced by action
        • Utilitarianism
          • Bentham
            • Principle of Utility
              • rightness or/and wrongness determind by usefulness
                • Usefulness refers to amount of happiness produced by action
              • Democratic theory: "Everybody is to count for one, and nobody for more than one"
            • humans motivated by p&p
              • moral fact: humans pursued pleasure and sought to avoid pain
              • "Nature has placed mankind under two sovereigns; pain and pleasure. they point out what we ought to do and what we shall do"
            • Hedonic Calculus
              • Remoteness= how near is the p&p?
              • Certainty= will the p&p definitely follow?
              • Richness= how likely will p&p repeat afterwards?
              • Duration= how long it lasts?
              • Purity= the chance of opposite sensation occuring
              • Extent= no. of people affected by it
              • Intensity= how strong p&p is?
            • hedonist
              • pleasure is chief good
              • Pleasure is sole good and pain is sole evil
            • Act Utilitarianism
              • Flexible as laws and rules can be broken when necessary
              • principle of utility directly applied to each situation
              • decision is wrong or right depending on the consequences of the action
            • Author should recieve max satisfication
          • "An action is right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number"
            • "Always act in such a way to Max pleasure and Min pain"
          • Mill
            • happiness best gained by individulas making own choices through rules that were for the common good of all
              • life is best far from pain and rich in enjoyments, qual and quant, experienced people get right balance
            • recognised that greatest good for the greatest number similar to religious teachings; love thy neighbour and golden rule
            • Rule Utilitarianism
              • greatest good for community
              • general happiness-making rules
              • e.g. driving on left hand side of road, even in traffic jam and do not kill/lie
                • allow for leisure time
              • rule takes priority over immediate situation
            • Mill wished to reformulate the theory
              • pleasures are not of equal value
                • Lower
                  • physical pleasures, less intellectual not as high an objective
                  • Lower quality, associated with animal pleasures e.g. eating
                  • people choose lower who lack character to forgo nearer bodily pleasures over higher one
                    • Failure to nurture appreciation for higher pleasures, inaccessible, decline into more base gratifications
                • Higher
                  • preferred over lover more quantitative gratification
                  • better value, only humans can experience e.g. poetry
                  • "humans faculties more elevated that animal appetites, once conscience of them, they dont regard anything as pleasure that doesnt involve them"
                    • "Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
              • self sacrafice is necessary if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number
                • "its not the agents own happiness but the greatest amount of happiness altogether"
              • concerned that one persons pleasure is completely extinguished if majority gained pleasure from act
                • believed well being of individual was important
          • Singer
            • "an action is wrong if it doesnt satisfy the prefernce of the being involved unless the preference is one of the minority"
              • e.g. sharing fruit you have picked, fair and equal distribution, many preferences satisfied, until someone stops...
            • all preferences taken into account and count as one
            • best consequence= best interest of individual involved
        • Democratic theory: "Everybody is to count for one, and nobody for more than one"
      • humans motivated by p&p
        • moral fact: humans pursued pleasure and sought to avoid pain
        • "Nature has placed mankind under two sovereigns; pain and pleasure. they point out what we ought to do and what we shall do"
      • Hedonic Calculus
        • Remoteness= how near is the p&p?
        • Certainty= will the p&p definitely follow?
        • Richness= how likely will p&p repeat afterwards?
        • Duration= how long it lasts?
        • Purity= the chance of opposite sensation occuring
        • Extent= no. of people affected by it
        • Intensity= how strong p&p is?
      • hedonist
        • pleasure is chief good
        • Pleasure is sole good and pain is sole evil
      • Act Utilitarianism
        • Flexible as laws and rules can be broken when necessary
        • principle of utility directly applied to each situation
        • decision is wrong or right depending on the consequences of the action
      • Author should recieve max satisfication
    • "An action is right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number"
      • "Always act in such a way to Max pleasure and Min pain"
    • Mill
      • happiness best gained by individulas making own choices through rules that were for the common good of all
        • life is best far from pain and rich in enjoyments, qual and quant, experienced people get right balance
      • recognised that greatest good for the greatest number similar to religious teachings; love thy neighbour and golden rule
      • Rule Utilitarianism
        • greatest good for community
        • general happiness-making rules
        • e.g. driving on left hand side of road, even in traffic jam and do not kill/lie
          • allow for leisure time
        • rule takes priority over immediate situation
      • Mill wished to reformulate the theory
        • pleasures are not of equal value
          • Lower
            • physical pleasures, less intellectual not as high an objective
            • Lower quality, associated with animal pleasures e.g. eating
            • people choose lower who lack character to forgo nearer bodily pleasures over higher one
              • Failure to nurture appreciation for higher pleasures, inaccessible, decline into more base gratifications
          • Higher
            • preferred over lover more quantitative gratification
            • better value, only humans can experience e.g. poetry
            • "humans faculties more elevated that animal appetites, once conscience of them, they dont regard anything as pleasure that doesnt involve them"
              • "Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
        • self sacrafice is necessary if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number
          • "its not the agents own happiness but the greatest amount of happiness altogether"
        • concerned that one persons pleasure is completely extinguished if majority gained pleasure from act
          • believed well being of individual was important
    • Singer
      • "an action is wrong if it doesnt satisfy the prefernce of the being involved unless the preference is one of the minority"
        • e.g. sharing fruit you have picked, fair and equal distribution, many preferences satisfied, until someone stops...
      • all preferences taken into account and count as one
      • best consequence= best interest of individual involved

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