Urban area effects on local climate

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  • Urban areas effects on local climate
    • Temperature
      • Building materials
      • Industries, buildings and vehicles
      • "Pollution Dome"
      • Fast water drainage = Reduced evapo-transpiration
      • Annual mean = 0.5-0.8°C increase
      • Winter minimum = 1.0-1.5°C increase
    • Precipitation
      • Urban heat island generating convection
      • High-rise buildings generating turbulance, increased vertical motion
      • Industrial water vapour and pollutants
      • Quantity = 5-10% increase
    • Relative humidity
      • Annual mean = 6% decrease
      • Winter = 2% decrease
      • Summer = 8% decrease
    • Visibility
      • Fog in winter = 100% increase
      • Fog in summer = 30% increase
    • Wind speed
      • Surface area of cities uneven
      • High-rise buildings may slow air movement, can also speed it up with "canyons"
      • Annual mean = 20-30% decrease
    • Radiation
      • Winter = 30% lower
      • Summer = 5% lower
      • Total on horizontal surface = 15-20% lower
    • Pollution
      • 1000% increase in Duse particles

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