Criminology UNIT 4

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  • Created on: 27-02-19 08:50
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  • UNIT 4 AC2.1
    • Social Control
      • Strategies for preventing deviant human behaviours, and encourages everyone in society to abide by the law.
        • Rational Ideology is based on the idea that committing a crime is a choice based on a rational calculations of the consequence.
          • People will look at the benefits and rewards of committing a crime, and make a rational choice as to whether they feel that they outweigh the consequence.
        • Traditions are a transmission of customs or beliefs from generation to generation, and could be cultural, religious or common practices. Traditions can succumb to reducing criminal activities as there are certain morals that must be followed, e.g. Church.
        • Social rules are unwritten rules about behaviour. They are expected behaviours and consideration in society e.g. Having manners and queuing in shops.
          • Morality involves standards of behaviour that are viewed as right or wrong. It is good to act in this way as it is usually ethical and honest e.g. Respecting elders and authority figures.
    • External social control is exercised by people and organisations specifically empowered to enforce conformity e.g. police, judge.
      • The use of punishment as a threat to stop people offending  is called deterrence.
        • Individual deterrence is a punishment chosen for deterring that individual from crime.
          • General deterrence is where a punishment is given that will deter others from committing crimes e.g. capital punishment, mandatory minimums.
      • Travis Hirschi stated that people needed 4 main bonds in their life to prevent them from becoming criminals. This involves attachments, commitment, involvement and belief.
        • Attachments - friends, family, school
        • Commitment - person needs to have a bond with themselves in the form of wanting to achieve good things
        • Involvement - person needs to be involved in social groups within society
        • Belief - person needs to share the same moral values and beliefs as the majority of society
    • Walter Reckless developed a control theory known as 'containment theory'. He said we could resist committing crimes due to 'inner and outer' containment.
      • Inner containment comes from our upbringing and influence from family socialisation.
      • Outer containment comes from the influence of social groups around us, including the law.
      • Reckless' theory would say that Thomas and Venables who killes Jamie Bulger, suffered from a lack of inner and outer containment, making them more susceptible to crimes.
  • When these are internalised they will then drive your behaviour.

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