Types of Language Change

Types of langauge change and definitions

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  • Created by: Jessica
  • Created on: 06-05-14 16:17
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  • Types of Change
    • Semantic Change - the meaning and connotations of words
      • Broadening = a word gains additional meaning
      • Narrowing = a word that loses meaning
      • Amelioration = meaning gets better/positive
      • Pejoration = meaning gets worse/negative
      • Weakening = a word that loses force
      • Euphemism = soften something offensive
      • Political correctness = e.g. Black - African American
    • Lexical Change - new words and words changing spelling etc.
      • Neologism = a new word e.g. chav
      • Borrowing = borrow words from other countries and languages
      • Coinage = a brand new word
      • Affixing = "sh-amazing" - Nicole Sherzinger
      • Compounding = 2 whole words, e.g. lap-top
      • Blending = parts of words, e.g.motel, motorway hotel
      • Abbreviation = "brill", brilliant
      • Acronyms = initials to be read as a word
      • Archaism = a word that has died out
      • Ephemeral = a word that comes and goes quickly
      • Orthography = spelling
    • Grammatical Change - word types, tense and word order
      • Syntax = word order
      • Pronouns = words that replace nouns
      • Double negatives = 2 negatives together
      • Split infinitives = "to boldly go"
      • Inflectional suffix = doesn't change word class
      • Derivational suffix = changes word class e.g. "I love you", love is verb, "you are loveable", loveable is adjective
    • Phonological Change
      • The Great Vowel Shift
      • Divergence vs Convergence (Labov's Martha's Vineyard, broaden accents, diverged. Diverge = move away, Converge = move towards.)
      • Trudgill and -ing in Norwich= men drop the 'g' more than women
      • Jean Aitchison and glottal stops = drop the 't'
      • Australian upward inflection = everything is a question
      • Omission = missing words, "going shop"
    • Discourse
      • Introduction
      • Terms of address
      • Discourse markers
      • Parallelism
      • Repetition
      • Anecdotes
      • Conclusion
    • Graphology
      • Initial = A traditional form of decoration before printing methods evolved
      • The long S = developed in the 17th century, died out in the 19th century due to confusion with the modern 'f'.
      • Excessive use of capital letters = used for any words the writer chose to emphasise
      • Serif font style = style of having a fine stroke attached to the top and bottom of each letter. Changed to sans-serif, font styles became more fashionable, still used but only to create a traditional look.
  • Semantic Change - the meaning and connotations of words
    • Broadening = a word gains additional meaning
    • Narrowing = a word that loses meaning
    • Amelioration = meaning gets better/positive
    • Pejoration = meaning gets worse/negative
    • Weakening = a word that loses force
    • Euphemism = soften something offensive
    • Political correctness = e.g. Black - African American
  • The long S = developed in the 17th century, died out in the 19th century due to confusion with the modern 'f'.

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