Language Change

Lexis - Coinage
A process of word formation. This is either deliberate or accidental
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Lexis - Archaism
Words no longer in use
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Lexis - Emphemeral Language
A word whose meaning lasts only a short time
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Lexis - Inkhorn Controversy
Words that writers invented based on Greek or Latin
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Lexis - Technology
How technology has influenced language change, usually through advancements
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Lexis - Eponyms
A person whom an invention, discovery and place is named after e.g. Caesar salad
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Semantics - Amelioration
A word gains positive meaning
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Semantics - Pejoration
A word gains negative meaning
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Semantics - Broadening
A words meaning increases
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Semantics - Narrowing
A words meaning decreases
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Semantics - Weakening
A words meaning has weakened
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Semantics - Euphemisms
A positive way to say something e.g. the dog has gone to doggie heaven
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Semantics - Dysphemisms
A negative way to say something e.g. the dog is dead
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Semantics - Polysemy
Multiple meanings for one word
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Semantics - Political Correctness
The effect that politics has changed the words which we use
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Semantics - Functional Theory
Language adapts to the needs of its users
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Semantics - Semantic Reclamation
A group reclaims the terms used in offense against them
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Grammatical Change - Inflections
Word endings change e.g. adding -ing
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Grammatical Change - Word Order
As words are given a word class and a standardised way of conducting a sentence the word order changes
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Grammatical Change - Second Person Pronouns
Some second person pronouns lose their use as other words replace them e.g. thou
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Grammatical Change - Double Negatives
They stop being common as language becomes standardised e.g. there ain't no place like home
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Grammatical Change - Double Comparatives
They stop being common as language becomes standardised e.g. very prettiest
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Grammatical Change - Auxiliary Verbs
Helps to write sentences in different tenses. These become common as language becomes standardised. e.g. be, do
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Grammatical Change - Punctuation
Different punctuation is used e.g virgule (comma), punctus (full stop in the middle of the line), semi-colons
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Phonology - Great Vowel Shift
A shift in how vowels are pronounced, long vowels are shifted upwards. 15th to 18th century
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Phonology - Intonation Patterns
The way the voice goes up and down during speech e.g. Australians' voice's go up at the end of what they are saying often sounding like a question
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Phonology - RP
A way of talking that originates in London. The use has died down. Also known as BBC
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Phonology - Estuary English
A type of accent identified as spreading from London outwards containing features of RP and London Speech
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Phonology - Labov - Martha's Vineyard
Residents of a place change their language to establish themselves as different from the tourists
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Reasons For Change - Conflict and War
As wars happen new words are added to the lexis
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Reasons For Change - Globalisation
The world becoming interconnected, this is how language change spreads
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Reasons For Change - Colonisation
Settling among and establishing control of the language.
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Reasons For Change - Technology
As technology advances the lexis used needs to change to follow the pattern
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Reasons For Change - Literature and Texts
Writers try to bring new words in as a way to try to change the English language
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Reasons For Change - TV and Film
As television is available globally language can change and it can change quickly
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Reasons For Change - Standardisation
The conventional forms of the English language are established and maintain
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Reasons For Change - Youth Culture
The young people of today use new words and change their meanings
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Reasons For Change - Ease of Articulation
Changing the word pronunciation so that it is easier to say
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Reasons For Change - Omission
Letters become missed out from word spelling as it deemed unnecessary
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Reasons For Change - Neatening
A word or sentance changes so that it can become 'neater'
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Attitudes - Prescriptivism
Says how the English language should be used, tries to implement rules
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Attitudes - Descriptivism
Describes how the English language is currently being used
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Attitudes - Random Fluctuation and Cultural Transmission - Hockett
pwned - cannot predict what is going to happen to the English language
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Attitudes - Diffusion and S Curve - Aitchison
Says that language change starts off slow but then picks up pace rapidly then slows back down
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Attitudes - Damp Spoon, Crumbling Castle - Aitchison
Implies that people have become lazy with language and it needs to be cared for
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Attitudes - Declinism - Lane
Suggests that English language is declining - prescriptivist
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Attitudes - Sticklerism - Greene
People always correcting every small detail with the English language
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Words no longer in use

Back

Lexis - Archaism

Card 3

Front

A word whose meaning lasts only a short time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Words that writers invented based on Greek or Latin

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

How technology has influenced language change, usually through advancements

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

charlottehickey

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Amazing-Thankyou!

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