Tsarist Russia

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 20-04-13 10:13
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  • Tsarist Russia
    • Alexander II
      • Reasons to Emancipate the Serfs
        • Alex's Own View
          • In order to modernisation to happen serfs had to be emancipated
          • Serfdom morally wrong - western view
          • Would bring a more dynamic economy
        • Crimean War
          • Had to get rid of conscription
          • Russia realised they had to develop and modernise
          • Against Turkey - humiliating defeat
        • Economic
          • Would lead to more productive peasants
          • Russia needed to catch up and reassert its power
          • Plans to build a great rail
          • Nobles forced to take out mortgages on previously owned estates
          • Population doubled in the first half of the century
        • Moral & Intellectual
          • Intelligentsia wanted change
        • Political
          • Nobles income fell and were dependent on the serfs
          • Social Structure did nothing for nobility
      • Problems with Emancipation
        • Peasants still tied to land and Mir
        • Landlords paid of debt - did not invest in economy
        • Peasants had less land - often infertile and scattered
        • Peasants paid more tax - sell all grain/none for them
      • Impact of  other reforms
        • Judicial
          • Positive
            • Equality established
            • Less judges giving into black mail
          • Negative
            • No questioning
            • Everyone presumed guilty
            • Little chance of justice
          • Action Taken
            • Local courts set up
            • Made fairer system
        • Local Gov
          • Action  Taken
            • Electoral Colleges
            • Elected local councils
          • Positive
            • Zemstva had a range of powers to make improvements
          • Negative
            • Short on money
            • Votes - nobility dominant
        • Education
          • Action Taken
            • Educational instiutions funded
          • Postive
            • More poor and women in Uni's
            • Aimed to catch up with west
            • Curriculum
            • Open to all sex or class
          • Negative
            • Radical thinkers increased
        • Military
          • Negative
            • Serfs unable to get higher ranks
            • Higher classes dominated
          • Action Taken
            • Lowered conscription to 6 years (25)
            • Humane discipline
            • More efficient
            • Improved training
          • Positive
            • Military advanced
            • Not forced to join
      • Types of Opposition
        • Populism
        • Black Parition
        • People's Will
      • Terrorism fail to destroy Tsarism?
        • Terrorists offered no alternative
        • Conservatives still supoorted Tsar
        • The terrorists failed to gain support
      • Reforms to an end?
        • Personal life - Death of son - retreated from political life
        • April 1866 - Assassination attempts
        • Criticism - gone to far? Not far enough?
    • Russia Backwards
      • Political
        • Autocracy
        • No Opposition
        • Nobles in control
        • Secret Police
        • Conscripted Army
      • Economic
        • Harsh Winter - Affected farming
        • Farming Methods
        • Banking Undeveloped
        • No Consumer Demand for Products
        • Poor Communications
      • Social
        • 50 Million Serfs - 82% of the population
        • No demand for development
        • 3500 people in 6 Universities
        • Size of Russia
    • Alexander III
      • Vyshedradsky
        • Stronger Gov
        • Increased Taxes - Pushed for exportation of Goods
        • Trans Siberian Railway and Tariffs
        • Balanced budget deficit
        • Finance Minister 1887 - 1892
        • 1891 - 1892 Famine
      • Witte
        • Finance Minister 1893 - 1903
        • Gold  Standard
        • Highly influential
        • Economic  development only way to raise living standards
        • Oversaw the construction of railways
        • If everyone prospered then no need for revolution
        • Economic Growth
        • Foreign investments encouraged
      • Opposition
        • Liberals
          • 1904 union of Liberation - demanded democracy
          • Wanted modernisation
        • Zemstva
          • Demanded more power
        • SD's
          • Believed in Marxism
          • Bolsheviks - Small, sieze power ASAP
          • Mensheviks  - spread propaganda, not to lead revolution
        • Intellectuals
          • Criticises Tsardom
        • SR's
          • Terrorism and reform from below - little support
        • Middle Class
          • Poltential Opponents
      • Policies
        • Taxes Rasied
        • Peasant Poll Tax abolished
        • Peasant land bank
        • Protective Tariffs
        • Expansion of the railway system
        • Foreign Investment
        • Make Russian currency stable
        • Positive effects
        • Negative effects
          • Heavy spending on Military
            • 1885  onwards - 50% of government spending on military
          • Workers vulnerable to revolutionary  Propaganda
          • Middle class workers grew
          • Church
          • Poor living conditions
            • 1904 - 1/3 of houses in St.Petersburghad houses with water
          • Low wages and insecure  employment
            • 1899 Russia affected by world depression
    • Nicholas  II
      • Russia developed economically 1914
        • Developed
          • 4th Largest coal producer
          • Light industry grew with demand
          • 2393 banks by 1914
          • State money into heavy industry
          • State revenue doubled
          • Expanded enterprises
          • 10years compuls education
          • Exports growing
          • Extension of health services
          • 5th Largest industrial power
          • 1912 - health insurance
          • Factories rise - 2300
          • 1914 - 40% literacy rate
          • Economy growing 8.8% per year
        • Undeveloped
          • Areas better than others
          • Inflation rose 40%
          • Conditions grim
          • At mercy of employers
          • Low levels of education
          • No trade unions or legal protection
          • Lena goldfields
          • Regime still reliant on depression
          • 3 million workers involved in strikes
          • Population explosion
          • 4/5  population  peasants
          • Industry employed 5% of population
      • Dumas operate
        • 3rd Duma
          • Disputes
          • Agreed 2000 - 2500 gov proposals
          • Opposition  parties now outnumbered
          • 3rd Nov 1907 - 1912
          • No control - Not working
          • More representatives of nobility
        • 2nd Duma
          • Tsar wantesd SDs out
          • Gov interfere with elections
          • Liberal members reduced
          • Feb -June 1907
          • Stolypin dissolved - better voting system
        • 4th Duma
          • November 1912 - August 1917
          • Number of radicals increased
          • Workers - strike activity and direct action
          • Rift between left and right
          • Duma ignored
        • 1st Duma
          • Wanted everyone to vote, land reforms, trade union rights
          • Majority of SRs, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Octoberists
          • Disolved by the Tsar
          • 30%  workers/Peasants
          • April - June 1906
      • Why Tsardom able to survive 1914?
        • Decline in revolutionarygroups
        • Styolpin worked with 3rd & 4th Duma
        • Liberals worked with the tsar
        • Living conditions increased
      • Agrarian reforms - Stolypin
        • Positive
          • land banks set up to help peasants  become owners
          • 10% consolidated  there holdings
          • Nobility support - revolution less liekly
          • 1914 - 25% left commues
          • 15% of the peasants took up new opportunities
          • 1907 - redemption payments abolished
          • immediate  impact
        • Negative
          • Couldn't build large farms
          • Strip farming continued and wouldn't leave Mire
          • Applications to leave were declined
          • Not total success
          • Peasants beame   more prosperous
          • Poor and landless peasants  alienated
          • 14% of communal land passed on to private owner
        • Aims
          • Goal to transform traditional agriculture
          • Abolish  communal  system
          • Aimed to create a new type of peasant class
      • Situation  March 1917
        • Tsar not listening to duma, joined the front iine
        • Women took over the work
        • Produced less goods
        • Tsarina -German spy?
        • Poorly equiped
      • Why did war break out Japan?
        • Conquences?
          • Humilation
          • Total destruction of main fleets
          • Was a distraction from main problems
        • Japan attacks Port Arthur
        • Under Estimation
        • Land Disputes
      • Revolution in 1905?
        • Social
          • Peasants discontent
          • Food shortages
          • Poor working condition
          • Poor living conditions
        • Econmic
          • Poor harvest
          • Pressure on resources
        • Political
          • Russo Japanese war
          • Repression
      • Impact of WW1
        • Food shortages
        • 1.6 million deaths
        • Some historians exaggerated Russia's weakness - 1917
        • Inflation
        • Lack of resourses
        • Tsarina German Spy?
        • Support for Radical increased
      • Feb Revolution 1917
        • International Women's Day + Striking workers §240,000 involved
        • Demonstration Continued and Grew and spread Soldiers joined in.Petrograd garrison refused to fire at crowds – as Nic ordered. Half actively supported revolution
        • Attacked gov buildings – Down with the Tsar, Down with the War
        • Workers had railways torn up
  • Population doubled in the first half of the century
  • Military
    • Negative
      • Serfs unable to get higher ranks
      • Higher classes dominated
    • Action Taken
      • Lowered conscription to 6 years (25)
      • Humane discipline
      • More efficient
      • Improved training
    • Positive
      • Military advanced
      • Not forced to join
  • Negative
    • Radical thinkers increased
  • Aims
    • Goal to transform traditional agriculture
    • Abolish  communal  system
    • Aimed to create a new type of peasant class

Comments

LSC

This is so useful, thanks!!

LSC

This is so useful, thanks!!

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