Topic 4 - Demography

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  • Topic 4 - Demography
    • Death
      • Reasons for the decline in the death rate
        • improved nutrition
          • McKeown (1972) argues   improved nutrition accounts for half the decrease in mortality rates
          • Better nutrition increases resistance to infection
          • Doesn't explain why females live longer with smaller amount of food
        • Medical improvement
        • Public health measures and environmental improvements
      • The ageing population
        • Increased life expectancy
        • Declining infant mortality
        • Declingng fertility
      • Effect of an ageing population
        • More public services needed
        • Increase in dependency ratio
        • More one-person families
          • Majority female
    • Migration
      • Emigration
        • Economic - higher wages and better opportunites abroad
        • Religious, political or racial persecution
        • Assisted passage schemes - introduced due to political or ideological reasons
      • Recent and future migration patterns
        • The dependency ratio
          • Reduces  dependency ratio  as migrants are usually working age
          • Immigrant women usually have higher fertility rate so higher dependency rate
          • Reduces average age - lowering dependency ratio
          • Longer immigrants are in country there is less difference between fertility  rate
          • Net migration is difference between numbers moving in an out of society expressed as increase or decrease
        • Internal migration
          • Movement into an area  or society
    • Births
      • Reasons for the decline in the birth rate
        • 1. Changes in the postion of women
          • Law
            • Education
            • Divorce
            • More women working
            • Equality between men and women
        • 4. Child centredness
          • Childhood is socially constructed
          • Family sizes have decreased
            • Quanlity rather than quantity
        • Future trends in birth rates
          • Birth rates, fertility rates and family sizes have all decreased
          • Been a slight increase from 2001
            • Mothers from other countries who have moved to Britain have high fertility rates
            • 22% of all births in 2005 were by mothers from outside te country
        • 3. Children have become an economic liabilty
          • Laws
            • Not allowing child labour, instead they must be in school
          • Changing norms
            • Children cost more to raise
      • Effects of changes in fertility
        • Public services and policies
          • Lower birth rate
            • Fewer schools, maternity and child health care
        • The dependeny ratio
          • Relationship between the size of the working or productive part of the population
            • Earning, savings and taxes of the working population must  support the dependent population
        • The family
          • Richer families
            • Richer families can afford childcare for a large family and also allow them to go out to work
          • Smaller families
            • More women work, dual earner couple




This a great summary of demography which is a topic which can be confusing due to the high amount of information.This not only identifies the key demographic occurrences but also provides explanations to explain them.

Matty Hardy


This helped me a lot, shame i never looked at it before the start of my exam



This is so amazing..thanks



this helped a lot thanks whoever created this

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