Theories of offending AO1

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  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 09-02-14 13:50
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  • Theories of offending AO1
    • Early biological
      • Lombroso's actavistic form theory
        • a distinct group of people with primitive characteristics
        • Beak like nose, thin lips, fleshy lips, large jaw
        • people with these characteristics need to be treated more leniently because they a were born not made and have a lack of free will
      • Sheldon
        • link between body type and behaviour/personality
        • mesomorph/endomorph are more likely to be criminals
        • 200 delinquents, 1-7 scale of body types
    • Biological
      • Genetics
        • Lange: mz and dz twins, found 77% mz and 12% dz
      • chromosomes
        • extra x chromosome in males - testosterone
        • Jacobs: xxy was found in 1.5% of the prison population compared to 0.1 in normal
      • nueropsyiology
        • Brain structures are responisible for agression
        • Raine: found that there was a reduction of 11% grey matter in APD
          • Shows a reduced autonomic in stressful situations - poor arousal and lack of conscience
    • Eysenck 's criminal personality
      • We inherit a nervous system that affects our ability to condition to the environment
        • Introvert; over aroused ns
        • Extrovert: underaroused ns
        • Nueroticism: emotionally unstable
          • High extrovert and nueroticism dont adapt well to the environment
            • Extrovert: underaroused ns
        • emotional stablilty
        • psycoticism: overlaps with anitsocial
    • Social learning
      • observation, imitation, vicarious reinforcement
      • Bandura; agression, saw rewards. SHOWS children copy the behaviour of role models, rewards enhance it
      • Sutherland's differential association
        • may turn to crime when the rewards for breaking the law are greater than law abiding
        • association with the people aroumd you
    • Psychodynamic
      • Parts of the personaility: id, ego and superego
      • 3 superegos, Weak, Deviant, over harsh
        • Weak, absence of same sex parent in the phallic stage. the child has no one to identify with so has no morals and therefore no guilt
        • over harsh superego - demanding of guilt,
        • Deviant superego, the person who the child indentifies with is immorral
      • Defense mechanisms
        • conflict among the personalities, try and resolve it
        • displacement - taking emotions out on a substitude object
      • Maternal deprivation
        • when you suffer from problems because of disruption to the mother bond in the first 5 years of your life

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