The Terror: French Revolution

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  • Created by: MarziaDG
  • Created on: 22-02-15 09:48
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  • The Terror: France: Autumn 1793-July 1794
    • The First Terror
      • September Massacre 2nd-7th September 1792
        • 1400, 1/2 of all prisoners were killed
          • Most weren't actually dangerous - 200 were priests
          • National Guards that didn't want to leave their families before now were ok with going to fight in the war.
            • 20,000 more troops in army: Success in the Battle of Valmy
              • Dumouriez had peace talks with Prussia.
        • Sparked by 17 prisoners who were killed whilst they were being transported
        • Paris Commune said they would pay the Sans Culotte to kill
          • Shocked Legislative Assembly and political clubs
    • Power struggle between the Jacobin and the Girodin.
      • Jacobin
        • Set up the Committee of Public Safety: April 1793
          • They ran the Terror.
          • 12 members: one being Robespierre.
            • Only needed 3 signatures to make a law.
            • Robespierre justified Terror and some believed him
              • Led to Great Terror: May - June 1794
                • 2500 executions in Paris alone.
                • Law of 22 Prairlal.
                  • No lawyers at trials.
          • Saw themselves as above the Convention when the Convention should have been the ones giving them orders.
          • Representatives on Mission and Revolutionary army had roles changed to imposing Terror in the Provinces.
        • Attacked Girodin and wanted them out of Convention
          • Wanted to get rid of anyone who was against them.
          • Wanted to work with Sans Culotte.
          • Jacobin said anyone in the Girodin that voted for the appel au peple was a traitor and should be dismissed.
            • Marat was killed by a Girodin in 1793.
      • Coup d'état
        • Paris Sections went to Convention with demands.
          • One was get rid of Girodin deputies.
            • Jacobin knew that Girodin had a lot of support in the South so didnt want to do this as didn't know how the South would react.
              • Crowd left.
                • Came back on 2nd of June: 20,000 people.
                  • Jacobin arrested 29 Girodin deputies.
                    • Now dominated Convention.
        • May 1793
    • Convention discussed a need for Terror: Spring 1793
      • Marat made a violent speech that called for violence: shocked many.
    • Paris
      • October to November 1793
      • 177 executed
      • 16th October: Marie Antoinette and Girodin deputies executed
      • November: Bailly exceuted: Still being blamed for Champ de Mars Massacre.
      • By 1794, 16,000 had been killed.
    • End of the Terror
      • Thermidor.
        • 8th Thermidor
          • Robespierre hadn't been seen in a while as he had been ill.
          • R made a speech saying that it was all the CGS's fault (Committee of General Security)
          • CGS and Convention decided it was time for R and CPS to go.
        • 9th Thermidor
          • No support for R left.
          • R and supporters were arrested. Paris Commune tried to get a petition for their release but there was no support about.
        • 10th Thermidor
          • 100 more supporters of R were executed without trial.
          • Clean end to Terror.
      • Thermidor Reaction.
        • 1794-1795
        • People really didn't want a repeat of the Terror.
        • Released all the prisoners who were waiting to be trialled under Robespierre.
        • Closed RevolutionaryTribunals and things that allowed for quick trials (law of 22 prairal)
        • Closed Jacobin club.
        • Separated the Church and the State: people didn't have to chose between Revolution and Religion anymore.
          • Biggest uprising in Terror was the Civil War in the Vendee so this should please people.
    • Civil War in the Vendee: Feb 1793
      • Poor agricultural area
      • Catholic area with lots of Refractory Priests in hiding: priests that did support were enemies.
      • Largely royalist area and they wanted to rebel when they found out about the execution of Louis
      • Government thought they would rebel and get Britain to help.
      • Civil War sparked by the Levee of 300,000: Government basically brought in Conscription.
      • Catholic Royal Army: 120,000 Vendee people gathered to fight against Central Government.
        • Fighting began in March 1793
        • Only 16,000 Republican soldiers but the Catholic Royal Army were not well trained.
          • Ruthless: killed women and children.
        • 42% of death warrants from the Terror were from the Vendee.
          • 15% of Vendee population killed.

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