C1 Summary

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  • The Earth's Sea and Atmosphere
    • Early oceans formed as water vapour condensed They absorbed carbon dioxide to make carbonate rock
    • The early atmosphere was formed from volcanic activity and comprised mainly carbon dioxide and water vapour. Evidence for the early atmosphere is found in gases trapped in rocks and the oxidation of iron in rocks.
    • Photosynthesis eventually caused decreased CO2 and increased O2 in the atmosphere. The modern atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen with tiny amounts of carbon dioxide.
  • Materials from the Earth
    • Limestone is quarried for building, making cement and glass, and neutralising soil. Quarrying destroys habitats and causes pollution, but provides jobs.
    • Sedimentary rock forms from eroded rock fragments cemented together. It is relatively soft and easily eroded, and may contain fossils.
    • Metamorphic rock forms when other rocks come under heat and pressure. Limestone becomes marble.
    • Igneous rock solidifies from molten rock. Intrusive igneous rock cools below the surface, forming large crystals; extrusive rock cools on the surface, forming small crystals.
    • In thermal decomposition, a metal carbonate decomposes to form a metal oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Acids
    • Electrolysis is the splitting up of compounds using electricity (d.c.). HCl splits to H2 (g) and Cl2 (g); H2O splits to H2 (g) and O2 (g).
    • Acids are neutralised by bases, which are metal oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. Neutralising acids produces salts. Indigestion remedies are used to neutralise stomach acid.


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