The Structure and function of the skeletal system

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  • Skeletal System
    • six functions
      • Support
        • enables us to stand and provides framework
      • Protection
        • protect body parts from impacts and injuries
      • Movement
        • allow muscles to contract when pull on bone and create movement
      • Posture
        • holds us upright and acts as framework
      • Mineral Storage
        • increase density and strength
      • Blood cell Production
        • produce red blood cells to carry oxygen
    • Joints
      • A joint is a place where two or more bones meet
      • A synovial joint is a freely moveable joint lined with synovial fluid
      • Hinge joints - allow movement in 2 directions only (flexion and extension) e.g. at the knee and elbow
      • Ball and socket joints - allow movement in all directions (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction) e.g. shoulders and hips
    • Movement
      • Extension
        • Straightening/extending limb
        • angle at joint increases
        • example: when arm is extended to catch ball in netball
      • Flexion
        • bending/flexing a limb
        • angle at joint decreases
        • example: when knee is flexed in sprinting
      • Abduction
        • Sideways movement of limb away from midline of body
      • Adduction
        • sideways movement of limb towards midline of body
      • Rotation/Circumduction
        • Rotation: bone turns about its longitudinal axis within the joint
        • Circumduction a continuous circular movement of a limb around a joint
    • Structure and Function
      • Ligaments
        • tough connective tissue found between bones connecting bone to bone.
        • prevent extreme movement and dislocation
      • Cartilage
        • soft connective tissue
        • reduces friction and shock absorber
      • Tendons
        • muscles are attached to bones via tendons
        • transmit power needed to move bones


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