The Nature of Autocratic Rule - Principles of Orthodoxy, anti-Semitism and the Okhrana

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 12-02-20 16:01
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  • The Nature of Autocratic Rule
    • Promoting Orthodoxy
      • Podedonostev advised the Tsar to promote Orthodoxy as an important part of Russian identity.
        • Between 1894-1902 Nicholas introduced the following measures;
          • The number of parish clergy increased by around 60%.
          • There was a 10x increase in church schools, and the number of students they taught increased 15x.
          • Missonaries were sent out to establish new churches in the Baltic states where Protestantism was popular.
        • As a result of the promotion, the number of people converting to Orthodoxy doubled between 1881-1902.
          • However, in urban areas there was a decrease in the amount of people attending Orthodox church.
      • Persecuting other faiths
        • No Christian churches other than the Orthodox  allowed to convert people.
        • Catholic, Protestant and Islamic schools were closed down and replaced by government-run schools.
        • Government confiscated the property of the Armenian Church.
    • Anti-Semitism
      • Agressive Russification and promotion of Orthodoxy led to more anti-Semitism.
        • Education
          • Oportunities for Jewish students was limited by enforced quotas:
            • No more than 10% of students at universities could be Jewish within the Pale of Jewish Settlement.
            • These univeristy quotas were 3% in the major cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg).
        • Residency
          • Restrictions on where Jews could live.
            • The May Laws (1882) banned Jews from living in the rural areas until it was finally repealed in 1905.
          • In some cities, eg Moscow and Kiev, campaigns were organised to expel Jews from cities.
        • Violence
          • Under Nicholas, the number of Pogroms increased dramatically.
            • A Pogrom is an organised massacre.
            • In 1903 and 1904 there were 49 pogroms in Russia.
        • Emigration
          • Due to the growing violent anti-Semitism many Jews left Russia.
            • Most went to the US, but some Latin America.
          • The government saw this emigartion of Jews as a good solution to the 'Jewish problem'.
    • The Okhrana
      • Reputation for being 'all powerful, all-knowing and all-capable'.
        • It's aim was to destory subversive organisations.
          • To do this it had extensive powers to arrest and infiltrate opposition groups.
        • In reality, it was a relatively small organisation.
          • 2,500 agents in 1900.
          • However, it was still effective.
            • Before 1905, it had infiltrated the leadership of the Social Democrats and the SR's.
      • Sergei Zubatov became the head of the Moscow Okhrana in 1896.
        • In addition to repression, Zubatov introduced 'Police Socialism'.
          • Included:
            • Investigated workers' complaints about abuses in factories.
            • Provided sick pay and unemployment benefits.
            • Attempted to take control of emerging unions.
          • Zubatov's pro-worker experiment spread to other Russian cities.
            • However, the government didn't like these reforms.
              • They ended the policy and fired Zubatov in 1903.
      • University Life
        • The Okhrana were involved in policing Russia's universities.
          • The University Statute of 1884 included:
            • Banned clubs and societies on university campuses.
            • Emphasised that students should study tradiditional subjects.
            • Banned Women from higher education.
      • Surveillance
        • engaged in widespread surveillance.
          • By 1900 they had records on 55,000 people, collections of 5,000 publications by revolutionary groups and 20,000 photographs of suspected radicals.
  • Orthodoxy, anti-Semitism and the Okhrana


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