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  • The Nature of autocratic rule: the Tsarist principles of autocracy, nationality and orthodoxy
    • The Tsar and the Law
      • Power not constrained by any constitutional checks
        • Not limited by Law
        • Russian subjects
          • No freedom of speech
          • No fair trial
    • Autocracy
      • Nicholas II had total power
      • Assisted by senate and state council
        • Just advisory; no power of the Tsar
    • Nationalism and Russification
      • Nicholas II used russification to control the empire
        • Russification meant that the aggressive promotion of Russian culture
        • also suppresed other natonal cultures
        • was a response to the development of nationalist feeling in parts of the empire
      • consequence of Russification
        • It was counter-productive
        • Backlash amongst groups who were loyal to the TSar
        • nationalism led to anti-polish, anti-finnish and anti-Semitic feeling
          • led to violence against minorities
    • The consequences of autocracy
      • Limited civil society
        • Tsar's autocracy limited the growth of civil society
        • Outlawed some groups such as trade unions
        • persecuted religious groups which could have played a role in generating civil society
      • Corruption
        • government officials claimed to be representitive of the Tsar
          • acted as if they had absolute power
      • The  Tsar's isolation
        • Tsar refused to recognise Russia's problems
          • Had little understanding of the poverty in Russia

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