Nature of autocratic rule: Orthodoxy

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  • Nature of autocratic rule: Orthodoxy
    • Promotion
      • Nicholas was encouraged to promote Orthodoxy to express the Russian identity.
        • Consequently, 1894-1902: Nicholas introduced measures:
          • No. of parish clergy increased by 60%.
          • Increase in church schools and no.of pupils they educated by 15 times.
          • Orthodox missionaries were sent to establish new churches in Baltic states where Protestantism was popular,
    • Anti-Semitism
      • Education
        • Educational oppurtunities for Jewish students were limited by quotas.
          • Jews could not make up more than:
            • 10% of students at Uni's within the Pale of Jewish Settlement.
            • 3% in Russia's major cities, Moscow+St Petersburg.
      • Residency
        • Many restrictions to where Jews could live.
          • The May Laws (1882)
            • Banned Jews from living in rural areas (law repealed in 1905).
          • In Moscow and Kiev there were campaigns to expel Jews from the cities.
      • Violence
        • Under Nicholas II: no.of pogroms increased significantly. 1903: 49 pogroms in Russia.
      • Emigration
        • Due to violent Anti-Semitism many Jews left Russia for the US and South America.
          • Government saw this as a good solution to the 'Jewish problem'.
    • Okhrana
      • 'all powerful' and 'all knowing'
        • Goal: to destroy subversive organisations by using extensive powers to arrest+persecute without trial.
          • University Life
            • University Statue (1884)
              • Banned societies on campus.
              • Emphasised that students should study traditional subjects.
              • Banned women from higher education.
          • Surveillance
            • By 1900, had records on:
              • 55,000 people.
              • Collections of 5,000 revolutionary publications.
              • 20,000 photos of suspected radicals.
        • Sergei Zubatov: head of Okhrana (1896)
          • Introduced 'Police Socialism'
            • Investigated workers' complaints about abuse in factories.
            • Attempted to take control of emerging unions.
            • Provided sick pay and unemployment benefit.

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