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  • Created on: 02-04-18 09:53
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  • Nature of autocratic rule: Orthodoxy, anti-Semitism and the Okhrana
    • Promoting Orthodoxy
      • Konstantin Pobedonoste
        • advised Tsar to promote Orthodoxy as part of Russian identity
      • between 1894-1902, Nicholas introduced;
        • Number of parish clergy to increase 60%
        • tenfold increase in church schools and the number of students educated around 15 times
        • Orthodox missionaries sent to establish new churches in Baltic states
      • number of people converting doubled in the period 1881-1902
      • In urban areas there was a decline in Orthodox Church attendance
      • Persecuting other faiths
        • No Christian churches other than Orthodoxy Church were allowed to Proselytise
        • Catholic, Protetsant and Islamic schools closed down and replaced with government run schools
        • Russina government confiscated property of Armenian Church
    • Anti-Semitism
      • Education
        • 10% of students at University within the pale of Jewish settlement
        • 3% of Jews lived in Russia's major cities, Moscow and St Petersburg
      • Residency
        • restriction on where Jews could live
          • The May laws
            • banned Jews form living in Rural areas
            • repealed in 1905
          • cities such as Moscow and Kiev there were campaigns to expel Jews from cities
      • Violence
        • number of pogroms increased dramatically
          • In 1903 and 1904 there were 49 pogroms
      • Emigration
        • Due to growing violence Jews left Russia
          • Many emigrated to the US
          • Minority emigrated to Argentina and PEry
        • seen as a good solution to the 'Jewish problem' by Russian Government
    • The Okhrana
      • Had a reputation for being 'all-powerful, all-knowing and all-capable'
      • relatively small consisting of 2,500 agents in 1900
      • University lIfe
        • Banned clubs and society's on university campuses
        • emphasised that students should study traditional subjects only
        • banned women form higher education
      • surveillance
        • Okharana had engaged in widespread surveillance
        • by 1900 had records on 55,000 people, 5,000 publications by revolutionary groups and 20,000 pictures of expected radicals


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