the liver and detoxification

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  • The liver
    • veins and arteries
      • the hepatic vein takes deoxygenated blood away from the liver
      • the hepatic artery supplies oxygenated blood from the heart so there is oxygen for respiration to provide energy
      • the hepatic portal vein brings blood from the duodenum and ilium (parts of the small intestine)
        • the blood is rich In digestion products so any ingested harmful substances are filtered out and broken down straight away
    • function
      • to break down metabolic waste products and other substances that can be harmful
      • it also controls glucose. lipid and amino acid levels
      • it synthesises red blood cells in the fetus, red blood cells, plasma proteins and cholestrol
      • storage of vitamin A,D,B12 iron and glycogen
      • it breaks down hormones and destroys red blood cells
    • components
      • the bile duct takes bile ( a substance used by the liver to emulsify fats) to the gall bladder to be stored
      • hepatocyte  is a cuboidal shape with microvilli on the surface. the cytoplasm is dense with specialised organelles
      • kupffer cell are liver macrophages, they move about within the sinusoids.
    • detoxification
      • amino acids contain nitrogen and nitrogenous substances cant be stored. however amino acids have a lot of energy so shouldn't be wasted
      • deaminoation produces ammonia which is very soluble and very toxic. keto acid is also produced which enters respiration directly
      • in the ornithine cycle ammonia is combined with co2 to form urea which is passed to the kidneys and filtered out
      • in alcholol, ethanol is broken down by ethanol dehydrogenase to produce athanal
        • ethanol is dehydrogenated by ethanol dehydrogenase producing acetate


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