geography, second half of human

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  • The Human Environment
    • classifying and using resources
      • natural resource: any feature or part of the environment which can be used in the air, land or water
        • biotic resources
          • plants
          • animals
          • bacteria/fungi
        • abiotic resources.
          • minerals
          • fresh water
          • precipitation
      • how we have used recourses and changed the environment:
        • deforestation
          • eg. cameroon
          • why we exploit:   -for timber -for farming -for palm oil
          • damage: -decline in habitats  -affect micro-climates  -soil erosion (loss of valuable soil) -soil into river= rivers can't hold so much = flooding
        • overfishing
          • eg. north sea
          • exploit as fish is needed for protein
          • affects: - less fish produced by natural reproduction, than there is fished  -fewer fish=fewer prey for predators(so affects whole food chain)
        • oil extraction
          • eg. ecuador
          • damage: -threat to indigenous people -piplines crack -waste pits filled with crude oil
          • exploited as: underneath rainforests there is often a lot of oil, due to large amounts of biodiversity decomposing in the area.
    • definitions
      • abiotic resources:     non-living resources obtained from the lithosphere,atmosphere hydrosphere
      • biotic resources: living resources, obtained from the biosphere and are capable of reproduction.
      • renewable resources: type of energy which can be replenished and reused, mostly inexhaustible and can be replenished in a much smaller time scale
        • nuclear energy: anomaly, renewable as it provides masses of energy from small radioactive material and little co2. BUT  non-renewable as it producesco2 and requires mining of uranium
          • non-renewable resources: are finite and will run out. it cannot be remade due to the process taking millions of years.
      • non-renewable resources: are finite and will run out. it cannot be remade due to the process taking millions of years.
      • energy mix: where countries use different energy reassures in varying proportions to meet demand
      • sustainability: meeting the needs of the present, without comprimisingthe ability of future generations to meet their own needs,
    • global distribution of resources:
      • gold
        • mainly found in northern hemisphere (witwaterstand basin (40% of gold come from))
        • gold and diamonds found near volcanic areas. due to heat and movement of magma
      • iron
        • found in northern hemisphere
        • found in iron- rich sedimentary rock (banded iron formation)
      • coal
        • found in northern hemisphere
        • unevenly distributed due to peat formation at different times
      • diamonds
        • mainly africa, where volcanic activity has been
      • farming
        • biosphere create importatnreosursesfor people e.g. agriculture
        • variations in soil and climate affects suitability for farming
      • oil
        • middle east due to fossil fuels
      • forestry
        • bisophere= foresty
        • Northern  hemisphere
    • national distribution of resources
      • oil and gas : north sea
      • coal: nw england and scotland, northumberland, neath port talbot
      • iron, south england
      • arable farming: east anglia, nw Scotland, wales
      • water resources : nw england
      • forestry: nw, ne scotland. n England,s England
    • global consumptionof energy
      • global patterns of consumption
        • someone is N america, consumes 90kg of resources per day. but someone in africa consumes 10kg per day.
        • rapid development and living conditions,have causes an increase in the rates of global reassuresconsumption in countries e.g china/india
      • global energy consumption
        • coal and oil, located in middle east but GOV= unsustainable, so resources are not reliable
        • estimatedin next 35 years, global consumption= increase by 56%
          • due to increase in living standards in asia and india
            • asias energy consumption, risen from 2931 mtoe (2000) - 5545 (2014)
        • distribution of resources, depends on location of fossil fuels, and were renewable resources can be harnessed
      • global food consumption
        • world is capable of feeding all its inhabitants, but because of greed it doesn't
          • some countries have obesity others suffer from hunger
      • global fresh water consumption
        • 3% of earths water=drinking. 2% of which is in glaciers
        • global supply of water=continuos. as a result of the hydrological cycle
        • water distrubuted unevenly,due to different amounts of rainfall, evaporation and transpiration
    • non -renewable resource: COAL
      • advantages: 1.still large quantities of coal 2. mining coal=easy 3. mining coal=cheap 4.coal is efficient and generates large amounts of electric 5. mining=jobs 6.not weather dependant
      • disadvantages: 1. burning coal=co2 (global warming) 2.mining coal=dangerous (cause deaths and illness) 3.equipment for mining=large and noisy affecting wildlife 4.limited stocks of coal remaining
    • renewable energy resourse: WIND
      • advantages: 1.can be tall, but take up small ground area 2.new tech=reduces sound 3.land which built on=profit for owners 4. does not require water 5.low price for consumer 6.does not release co2 7. turbines=efficient and cheap 8.inexhaustible
      • disadvantages: 1.weather dependant 2.spoils view 3.cant store power and preserve it 4.noisy 5.offshore=  expensive transmitter lines
    • GLOBAL Energy mix
      • dominated by non-renewable resources(more than 80%)
        • could drop to 76% by 2020
      • reasons for  variation in energy mix:
        • wealth
        • government
        • international policies
        • level of development
        • population
        • environmental concerns
        • energy demands
        • energy resources available
    • why is the energy demand increasing
      • 1. population change 2.global variation in energy use in developed countries 3.technological dance 4.global shift in economic output 5.global shift in energy demand-developing countries

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