The Glorious Revolution

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  • The Glorious Revolution
    • Nobles lost faith in James II and invited William of Orange to invade England
      • James II was not liked
      • He faced a rebellion from Charles' II's illegitimate son, The Duke of Monmouth
      • James converted to Catholicism, had a Catholic wife, gave government posts to Catholics, passed pro-Catholic laws (no anti-Catholic sermons)
      • Nobles wanted his Protestant daughter Mary to rule with her husband William of Orange - the ruler of the Netherlands
      • William and Mary's forces landed in 1688, and James fled to France. This was the Glorious Revolution and William became William III
    • TGL brought changes for England's relationship with Scotland, France and Ireland
      • Scotland became more independent
      • In 1690, William agreed that Scottish MP's had full control of the church, the right to appoint ministers, and the abolition of bishops
      • James had fled to France, so the relationship with England worsened. The French gave James troops to invade, but the rebellion was quashed in 1690
      • James II and the rebels had used Ireland as a base, so Ireland was put under the control of Protestant landholders
    • TGL brought more freedom for Protestants and more restrictions on Catholics
      • The Bill of Rights declared that a Catholic could not become King or Queen in England, Scotland or Ireland
      • The Toleration Act was passed in 1689 - legal for Protestants to belong to Churches other than the Church of England
      • Some restrictions on Anglicans. For example, they could not serve in the army or in goverment
    • TGL limited power of the monarch to an extent
      • William and Mary had to agree to a new constitution
      • At their coronation, they had to swear that they would rule "according to the laws passed in Parliament"
      • Bill of Rights: No large armies in peacetime, no suspending laws, only collect taxes for a 4 year period, Parliament had to meet once and year and MP's had freedom of speech
      • The monarch was still responsible for deciding whether or not the country should go to war, and appointing people to important positions
      • Monarchs were still regarded with awe by the majority and the limits were only in case o emergencies
    • After 1688, Parliament had an increased role in running the country
      • William brought England into his war with France, which continued for 25 years
      • The Bank of England was established 1694 - partly to fund William's wars
      • William worked closely with Parliament, because he needed to fund his war through taxes and needed Parliament's approval
      • Parliament net regularly and divided into Whigs and Tories
      • There was parliamentary democracy with ministers, rather than the monarchy, responsible for much of the running of the country
      • 1701: The Act of Settlement offered the crown to the Hanoverians
      • William died in 1702 and Mary's sister, Anne, became Queen
      • Anne's children died so in 1714 the crown was passed to the House of Hanover
      • England and Scotland were united in 1707 by the Act of Union. Not all Scots supported this


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