The End of Consensus (1625-29)

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  • The Origins of the English Civil War
    • Religion
      • Charles' Arminianism - looked Catholic. Marriage to Henrietta Maria -suspicion. Majority of MPs Puritan, disliked idea of a Catholic influence and after Buckingham's death she became more influential.
      • Richard Montagu appointed as Bishop of Chichester in 1628 after Parliament tried to put him on trial and arrested him. Appointed Laud (Arminian, Puritans opposed his positions) as Archbishop of London 1628. Huge affront to Parliament.
    • Divine Right
      • Refusal of T and P - seen as an affront to his DR. FIVE KNIGHTS CASE - King won due to his DR - resentment amongst Parliament. 1628 Petition of Right highlighted dissatisfaction
    • Finance
      • Tonnage and Poundage - Charles only granted it for a year- saw this as an affront to his divine right. Forced loans - subjects had to make a gift of money to the Crown. Disliked by King's trad. supporters as they were having to pay substantial amounts of money.
      • Led to FIVE KNIGHTS' CASE in 1627 where King imprisoned 76 gentry and an Earl bc they refused to pay. King won due to Divine Right. Not only was Charles taking money, but it seemed as though he was heading towards autocracy due to royal prerogative.
    • Foreign Policy
      • Charles to go and woo Spanish infanta - failure. 1625 Cadiz expedition was a huge failure and embarrassment. 1627 - failed Ile de Re expedition - had to retreat after heavy losses.
      • Lot of losses were at the expense of P. Charles loaned ships to France and they were used to attack French Ps, C failed to recall ships.
    • Buckingham
      • Encouraged James to declare war on Spain and send an army to the Palatinate, expedition was a huge failure - previous resentment. THEN, encouraged Charles to woo Spanish infanta, failure.

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