The Drift to War (1640-42)

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  • The Drift to War (1640-42)
    • Ireland
      • Irish Rebellion in 1641 also meant Militia Bill was created in March 1641, as P couldn't trust C with an army in fear that he would use it against them.
      • This was also a cause of the passing of the GR (159-148) in November 1641, which for some moderate MPs was far too radical and led to the emergence of a royalist grouping. Bill led to the King's Comissions of Array (so wo opposing Militias had been set up).
    • Parliamentary Radicalism
      • Radical GR in Nov 1641 was also an attempt to recall the abuses of Personal Rule. Parliamentary Radicalism also sparked further divisions in Parliament. Nineteen Propositions in 1642 (basically P's war aims) also drove people away from Parliament.
        • Grand Remonstrance - not even sent to HoL. Too radical and v divisive (159/148). TURNING POINT
        • No negotiation - CIVIL WAR
      • London Mobs that may have been organised by Pym pushed for religious reform. Root and Branch petition signed by 15,000 Londoners. Bill of Attainder went outside of common law and demanded the execution of Strafford - executing Charles' main councillor.
    • The actions of Charles
      • Charles deemed very untrustworthy after the Army Plot and the Incident. AP - rumours that King would use army against P, King sent soldiers to tower which suggested truth to the rumours - helps push for execution of Strafford as it persuades Lords to pass BoA and confirms fears of a Catholic conspiracy.
      • Incident also shows he can't be trusted. Attempted Arrest of the Five Members (1642) shows Charles has no respect for Parliamentary privilege and was showing absolutist tendencies. Charles then leaves London to York, making plenty of room for radicalism.
    • The Short and Long Parliaments
      • Short P called bc C needs money, but shut down bc MPs wouldn't grant subsidies, C wouldn't listen to grievances and P began to discuss religion so shut down
      • Calls Long P because needs money (£850 a day) and Treaty of Ripon from Scots states that he has to call P and then they won't come further south. LP RESULTS IN: Triennial Act 1641 (C has to call P every 3 yrs), Strafford's Trial and exec BUT required BoA, signed by Lords after AP.
        • Strafford's Trial - shows King can be pushed to extreme concessions and some find this too much - royalists
        • T+P abolished, Ship Money outlawed, Laud's canons abolished. ROOT AND BRANCH - too radical and shelved
    • Religious Radicalism
      • Collapse of censorship, BBP released, Puritan Network active, High Commission and Star Chamber abolished, neutralising of Laud and collapse of Thorough - ROOM FOR RADICALISM

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