The failure to compromise 1640-49

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  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 05-02-20 18:58
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  • The Failure to Compromise (1640-49)
    • Divisions and the Drift Towards Civil War
      • Unison among MP's
        • In 1640 most MP's were united against the abuses of Chalres' Personal Rule.
          • They agreed to abloish Ship Tax and passed the Triennial Act, meaning that the monarch would have to call a Parliament at least every 3 years.
            • Meant that Charles wouldn't be able to repeat an extended period of Personal Rule.
      • Drifts among MP's
        • Root and Branch petition (December 1640)
          • The petition was from 15,000 London puritains and supported by the radical MP John Pym.
          • Called for the removal of bishops from the church.
          • Worried Conservatives as they believed it would threaten the established order.
        • Bill of Attainder (1641)
          • Used by Pym to justify the execution of Charles' principle minister Thomas Wentworth (Earl of Stafford).
          • The bill made it so less evidence was needed to convict someone if they were regarded as a threat to the state.
          • Conservatives regarded it as a device to bend the law in a way that was as much as a threat to the constitution as Charles' actions.
        • Militia Bill (1641)
          • Proposed that Parliament should control any army used to crush the Irish Rebellion that began in October 1641.
          • Conservatives felt this undermined the most important royal prerogative - command of the army.
        • Grand Remonstrance (1641)
          • To try persuade wavering MP's to pass the militia bill, Pym produced the Grand Remonstrance.
            • Listed the faults of Charles since 1625, hence showing why he shouldn't be trusted with the armed forces.
          • Moderates in the Commons saw little point in dragging up old grievances which had been resolved by legislation already passed.
            • Also disliked that the way it was adressed seemed to be not towards the King, but like an appeal to be people.
        • Most moderate MP's saw this increasing and dangerous radicalism.
          • The reaction to Pym and his supporters became know as 'Constitutional Royalism', a number of moderates willing to support royalism as a method of order and security.
            • This helped create the two sides necessary for Civil War.
    • The build up to Civil War
      • The 'five members'
        • January 1642 Charled tried to arrest his 5 main parliamentary opponents.
          • Accused them of trying to overturn the laws and government of England and encouraging the Scots to invade.
          • However, the 5 members had been warned of Charles' intentions and fled.
          • Proved to be the final straw for Parliamentary opposition and showed how the King could no longer be trusted as he was trying to restore his authority by force.
      • Consequence of the 'five members'
        • Charles fled London with his wife and children.
          • Felt initimidaated by the growing unrest and demonstrations in the city.
        • Militia Bill
        • Nineteen Propositions
          • Passed in June 1642.
          • Demands included:
            • Lords and Commons should approve all Privy Councillors.
            • Laws against Jesuits and recusants should be enforced.
            • Militia should be placed under parlimentary control.
            • Should be sweeping reform of the church.
            • Parliament should supervise the upbringing and marriage of Charles' children.
      • Impact of the Nineteen Propositions
        • Suggested that Parliament was not seriously intending to negotiate with the King due to the severity of the Propositions.
        • Attempts to compromise had been broken down
          • In July, Parliament voted to raise an army under the leadersthip of the Earl of Essex.
            • In August, Charles raised his standard in Nottingham and declared war on Parliament.

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