The Long Parliament

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • The Long Parliament
    • Background
      • Elections
        • Autumn 1640: the godly faction co-ordinated and supported election campaigns
          • Use of puritan preachers
            • 'widespread animus against 'court' candidates'
              • Only 15% of elected MPs had court connections
          • 'widespread animus against 'court' candidates'
            • Only 15% of elected MPs had court connections
        • high voter turnouts
          • Inflation meant that the requirement that voters needed to own property worth at least 40 shillings wasn't so restrictive
          • More and more townfolk becoming politically aware
            • Print and propaganda
              • Royal censorship of the press had become unenforcable
              • J Miller: 'political journalism revealed an analytical sophistication not seen again until the 19th century, or later'
              • Most of these (2/3) were on religious issues such as Root and Branch
                • Iconoclasm
                  • Root and Branch petitions drawn up against bishops and iconoclasm
                  • Laudian policies had caused widespead popular anger
                    • Attacks on Laudianism had a lot of support: huge support for impeaching Laud
                      • But more radical religious reforms split parliament
                  • crowds raided st Pauls in London
                    • Iconoclasm
                      • Jan 1641: Commons Order for the destruction of images
                        • But more radical religious reforms split parliament
                  • Catholics were seen as using the monarchy to plot agains parliament
                    • politically, a 'formidable weapon' for the godly
      • Petitions
        • petitions for the redress of grievances had been drawn up in 18 counties and several towns
          • More and more townfolk becoming politically aware
            • Print and propaganda
              • Royal censorship of the press had become unenforcable
              • J Miller: 'political journalism revealed an analytical sophistication not seen again until the 19th century, or later'
              • Most of these (2/3) were on religious issues such as Root and Branch
                • Iconoclasm
                  • Root and Branch petitions drawn up against bishops and iconoclasm
                  • Laudian policies had caused widespead popular anger
                    • Attacks on Laudianism had a lot of support: huge support for impeaching Laud
                    • crowds raided st Pauls in London
                      • Iconoclasm
                        • Jan 1641: Commons Order for the destruction of images
                      • Catholics were seen as using the monarchy to plot agains parliament
                        • politically, a 'formidable weapon' for the godly
              • Gentles: these came from a 'cross section of society'
              • demanded that they be addressed on the first day of parliament
            • 900+ petitioned for a committee to investigate misdeeds by Laudian clergy
          • The Junto
            • The collapse of CI's authority had left a power vacuum filled by the godly party
            • Commons: Pym, Hampden, St John. Lords:Bedfordand Warwick
              • Warwick was not puritan but wanted to reduce the power of the king and weaken or abolish episcopacy
              • The House of Lords was much less militant
            • they ran and formed several committees which proposed laws and bills
              • But they still needed votes/ to win debated (connection to the Scots was a slight liability)
            • Autumn 1640: the godly faction co-ordinated and supported election campaigns
              • Use of puritan preachers
            • The Army
              • The King's army had not been disbanded after Newburn
                • still hoped to use it against Scotland or parts of England
              • Quartered in Yorkshire; heavy burden on local people caused anger
              • Not paid; propensity to violence and riots
                • eg tore down enclosure fences and raided deer parks
                • worried conservatives who feared social disorder
                  • The House of Lords was much less militant
          • 1. The Trial of Strafford
            • brought forward by the Junto but united many in the Lords and Commons
            • Trial before Lords March 1641: S is accused of 'constructive treason'
              • He defended himself and the lords was reluctant to condemn him
            • 10 April: Pym brings bill of Attainder
              • Except Essex, the Lords were still reluctant to act
                • THE ARMY PLOT: revealed that a group of Army officers had planned a coup d'état which would free Strafford and disband parliament
                  • Lords passed the Bill
                    • Popular pressure (crowds gathered outside Whitehall on the day of Voting
                    • Strafford was executed May 1641
                      • On the day he signed S's death warrant, Charles also signed a bill which prevented him from dissolving the Long parliament without its consent
                        • opened the floodgates/ broke political deadlock
                • Lords passed the Bill
                  • Popular pressure (crowds gathered outside Whitehall on the day of Voting
                  • Strafford was executed May 1641
                    • On the day he signed S's death warrant, Charles also signed a bill which prevented him from dissolving the Long parliament without its consent
                      • opened the floodgates/ broke political deadlock
          • 2. Church Debates
            • Root and Branch reform
              • the godly faction wanted the exclusion of bishops from the Lords
                • This had a lot of popular support (petitions)
                  • Iconoclastic bishops and clergy were derided in print and faced anti-Laudian mobs
              • many saw episcopacy as inseparable from social structure and order
                • Began a growing conservative reaction
                • Sir Edward Dering: introduced Root and Branch Reform but defected due to social disturbances in his constituency, Kent
                • One of the most reliable predictors of side-taking in the civil war was the Member's support for Root and Branch reform
          • 3. End to Charles' prerogative government
            • 22 June: Tonnage and Poundage Act
            • July: Prerogative courts abolished
            • August: all forms of Ship Money abolished. Limited the forest boundaries to their 1623 positions. Knighthood fines abolished
            • CI was forced to appoint leading parliamentarians to his government
              • St John- solicitor-general
              • Essex:Lord Chamberlain
          • 4. The Irish Rebellion
            • October-November  1641: rebellion broke out in Ireland
              • Irish catholics claimed to be acting for the King
            • News of the rebellion was sensationalised in print; stories about massacres of protestants addedto an anti-catholic sentiment
              • 5. The Grand Remonstrance
                • Drafted by Pym: A review of Charles' entire reign, setting out the evidence that there was a Catholic plot at the heart of Charles' government
                  • called for parliament to control the King's ministers
                  • Called for the exclusion of bishops and Catholiic peers from the Lords, Root and Branch reform
                  • Parts of the document could not be voted on separately;MPs were forced to take a side on whether they supported CI's entire reign, in Personal Rule, or not
                    • Due to popular anger at Charles and Laud, refusing to criticise Charles could be dangerous, many MPs were pressured into voting for the Grand Remonstrance
                      • Popular anger and protest
                        • Cressy
                          • 'the explosion of print' was 'a revolution within the revolution'
                            • Published it directly instead
                          • 'The years 1640-42 saw.. an extraordinary upsurge of hostility to established authority'
                        • December 1641: mobs of apprentices and trained bands protested the appointment of Lupton to govern the Tower of london
                          • They thought CI was planning to use the arsenal in the Tower to attack parliament/ the city
                          • CI was forced to withdraw Lupton's appointment
                        • 27 Dec: crowds obstructed bishops and prevented them from entering the House of Lords
                          • 12 Bishops presented a petition asking parliament to discount anthing that had passed on that day; Parliament had them impeached
                        • 10 Jan 1642: CI was forced to flee London for Hampton Court
                • Passed by 159-148 votes (November 1641)
                  • Pym didn;t bother sending it to the Lords, knowing they wouldn't pass it
                    • Published it directly instead
            • Could Charles be trusted to command the Irish Army in light of the Army Plot and the Incident?
              • The Incident: attept to arrest Argyll and Hamilton. Scottish nobles associated with the Covenanters
              • THE ARMY PLOT: revealed that a group of Army officers had planned a coup d'état which would free Strafford and disband parliament
                • The first act for the control of the militia was drafted, though not passed.
              • More power to parliament: Charles needed more money to  put down the rebellion
                • Pym could use this to strengthen resolve in the face of reaction
                  • 5. The Grand Remonstrance
                    • Drafted by Pym: A review of Charles' entire reign, setting out the evidence that there was a Catholic plot at the heart of Charles' government
                      • called for parliament to control the King's ministers
                      • Called for the exclusion of bishops and Catholiic peers from the Lords, Root and Branch reform
                      • Parts of the document could not be voted on separately;MPs were forced to take a side on whether they supported CI's entire reign, in Personal Rule, or not
                        • Due to popular anger at Charles and Laud, refusing to criticise Charles could be dangerous, many MPs were pressured into voting for the Grand Remonstrance
                          • Popular anger and protest
                            • Cressy
                              • 'the explosion of print' was 'a revolution within the revolution'
                                • 'The years 1640-42 saw.. an extraordinary upsurge of hostility to established authority'
                              • December 1641: mobs of apprentices and trained bands protested the appointment of Lupton to govern the Tower of london
                                • They thought CI was planning to use the arsenal in the Tower to attack parliament/ the city
                                • CI was forced to withdraw Lupton's appointment
                              • 27 Dec: crowds obstructed bishops and prevented them from entering the House of Lords
                                • 12 Bishops presented a petition asking parliament to discount anthing that had passed on that day; Parliament had them impeached
                              • 10 Jan 1642: CI was forced to flee London for Hampton Court
                      • Passed by 159-148 votes (November 1641)
                        • Pym didn;t bother sending it to the Lords, knowing they wouldn't pass it
                • 7. Control of Militia
                  • April: Sir John Hotham refuses to surrender Hull arsenal to CI
                  • March 1642: Parliament issued the 'militia ordinance'
                    • First time parliament had passed a law without the king's consent
                    • June: Charles I issues the Commissions of Array
                      • Forces militia captains to choose a side (eg Sir Thomas Kynvett who received orders from both the King and Parliament)
                  • July 1642: Parliament raises an army. August: CI raises his standard at Nottingham
                    • 8. The 19 Propositions
                      • List of Parliament's war aims; delivered to CI July 1642
                        • Parliament to control appointment of advisors, education and marriages  of the King's children
                        • Catholic peers to be excluded from the Lords, anti-catholic laws to be strictly enforced. Parliament to reform the Church of England.
                        • CI to approve the militia ordinance and put forts and castles under the control of officers approved by Parliament
                        • Clear the 5 members of all charges
                        • Discuss and decide policies in parliament, not in private
                • 8. The 19 Propositions
                  • List of Parliament's war aims; delivered to CI July 1642
                    • Parliament to control appointment of advisors, education and marriages  of the King's children
                    • Catholic peers to be excluded from the Lords, anti-catholic laws to be strictly enforced. Parliament to reform the Church of England.
                    • CI to approve the militia ordinance and put forts and castles under the control of officers approved by Parliament
                    • Clear the 5 members of all charges
                    • Discuss and decide policies in parliament, not in private
                • 6. The Attempt on the Five Members (Jan 4 1645)
                  • Charles entered the commons to arrest 5 MPs and one peer
                    • Pym, Hampden, Haselrig, Holles, Strode and Edward Montagu (soon to be Earl of Manchester)
                  • destroyed remaining trust in his ability to rule and goodwill between him and parliament, gave credibility to conspiracy theories
                    • Lords: accepted the bill excluding bishops from parliament
                    • 7. Control of Militia
                      • April: Sir John Hotham refuses to surrender Hull arsenal to CI
                      • March 1642: Parliament issued the 'militia ordinance'
                        • First time parliament had passed a law without the king's consent
                        • June: Charles I issues the Commissions of Array
                          • Forces militia captains to choose a side (eg Sir Thomas Kynvett who received orders from both the King and Parliament)
                      • July 1642: Parliament raises an army. August: CI raises his standard at Nottingham

                Comments

                No comments have yet been made

                Similar History resources:

                See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »